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基于社区发展的我国农业生态补偿法律问题研究

—— 以湖北省为例
Studies on the Law Issues of Agricultural Ecological Compensation Based on the Community Development

作者: 专业:经济法学 导师:李长健 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 华中农业大学

Keywords

Agro-ecological compensation, community, community development, tilt protection, community-driven, government support

        我国是一个农业大国,在目前全球生态环境资源紧张、生态环境恶化的形势下,要确保我国农业生态系统的良性发展,必须创新我国农业生态环境保护措施。通过有效的农业生态补偿对传统的农业生态保护措施进行创新,来提升生态保护实践效果。在两型社会建设的国内背景和生态资源紧张的国际背景下,充分考察我国农业生态环境保护和生态补偿的具体特征与现实情况,借鉴国内外先进经验,融合以法学学科为主,结合管理学、经济学,在深入的实证调研基础上,着力探索一条适合我国国情的农业生态补偿的道路。本研究以构建农业生态补偿制度保护农业生态环境为核心,积极转变农业生态环境保护的理念,结合我国农村社区蓬勃发展的现状,在农村社区的平台上构建农业生态补偿模式。通过构建基于农村社区发展的农业生态补偿具体法律制度及实践模式,来促进农业生态环境的有效保护和社会利益分配公正。研究中,笔者首先从社区和农业生态补偿的基本内涵、农村社区发展与农业生态补偿关系入手,对我国农业生态补偿的基础理论进行了必要的剖析。从法学、经济学和管理学三个角度依次展开进行阐释,为我国构建基于社区发展的农业生态补偿法律制度奠定了理论基础。通过对湖北农业生态补偿和湖北农村社区发展的样本分析与实证研究,归结出农业生态补偿的现状及存在的问题,并进一步揭示出我国农业生态补偿的实现困境。进而提出需要从加强法律建设和创新制度运行模式上来探索新时期我国农业生态补偿工作的完善,以适应当前农业生态补偿和农业生态环境现状的需要。通过以上的研究,构建了一套促进农业生态保护和社会利益分配公平的农业生态补偿法律制度,即赋予利益受损者得到补偿的权利和无偿享有农业生态利益的群体承担给予利益受损者一定补偿的义务。该制度主要包括农业生态补偿主体法律制度、补偿筹资及其管理法律制度、标准法律制度、程序法律制度、责任法律制度和救济法律制度。在全面分析国内生态补偿制度运行存在问题的基础上,总结出采用政府支持社区主导模式的必要性。政府在农村社区发展和对农业生态补偿两方面来发挥政府的支持作用,社区在组织保障和评估、监督、自律、防控等方面来实现其主导作用,从而寻求我国农业生态环境保护和社会利益分配公平更加有效的途径。
    China is a large agricultural country. In the present situation of global resource-constrained environment and the ecological environment deterioration, we must adopt the new agricultural ecological environmental protection measures to ensure healthy development of our agro-ecosystems. We can innovate the traditional protection by the effective agro-ecological agriculture compensation to improve and enhance the ecological efficiency. In the domestic background of two types of social construction" and in the context of ecological resource-constrained environment, this article is to explore a suitable eco-road for Chinese agricultural compensation based on the full study on the specific characteristics and realities agro-ecological environment protection and ecological compensation, as well as learning from advanced experience, integrated with the main subjects of law, management, economics, in-depth empirical research.In this study, it positively establishes the agro-ecological compensation system as the core of agro-ecological environment, changes the concept of agro-ecological environment protection and builds agro-ecological compensation mode on platform of rural communities in accordance with their vigorous development situation. It is to promote effective protection of agricultural ecological environment and social interests of distributive justice by the construction of agriculture ecological compensation system and the specific legal model based on the rural community development. In the study, the author analyzes basic theories of agro-ecological compensation, starting from the basic content of communities and agro-ecological compensation, as well as the relationship between the rural community development and agro-ecological compensation. Explanations are expanded from the three angles---law, economics and management to lay a theoretical foundation for building community-based on development of legal system of China’s agro-ecological compensation. Through sample analysis and empirical research of agricultural ecology compensation and community development in rural areas of Hubei province, it summarizes the status of agro-ecological compensation and problems, and further reveals dilemma to accomplish China’s agro-ecological compensation. And then, it demonstrates that it is necessary to explore new agricultural ecology compensation work by strengthening the legal system construction and operation mode in order to meet the needs of the current agro-ecological compensation and agro-ecological state of the environment. Through the above study, a set of legal system of agricultural ecology compensation was constructed to promote agro-ecological protection and fair distribution of social benefits, which regulates the men of impaired interests who have the right to get compensation and have obligations of compensation. The institution includes the laws of agro-ecological compensation subject, compensation financing and management, the standards, procedures, responsibilities and remedies. The necessity of adopting the model of Community-led and Government-support is summed up based on a comprehensive analysis of the domestic problems of ecological compensation system. The Chinese government will play a supporting role in the development of rural communities and agro-ecological compensation; the community will play a leading role in the organization protection mechanism and community-centered assessment, supervision, self-discipline, prevention and control mechanisms. Thus, we can seek more effective way to protect agricultural ecological environmental and promote equitable distribution of social benefits.
        

基于社区发展的我国农业生态补偿法律问题研究

摘要8-9
Abstract9-10
第一章 引论11-19
    1.1 研究缘起11-12
    1.2 文献综述12-17
        1.2.1 关于农业生态补偿的理论及其研究现状12-13
        1.2.2 关于社区发展的理论及现状研究13-15
        1.2.3 关于农业生态补偿与社区发展的关系研究15-16
        1.2.4 现有研究存在的问题和局限16-17
    1.3 研究设计、研究框架及研究方法17-18
        1.3.1 研究设计17
        1.3.2 研究框架17-18
        1.3.3 研究方法18
    1.4 论文的创新18-19
第二章 基于社区发展的农业生态补偿主要概念与相关基础理论19-30
    2.1 基于社区发展的农业生态补偿主要概念界定19-21
        2.1.1 农业生态环境19
        2.1.2 社区发展权19-20
        2.1.3 农业生态补偿20-21
    2.2 基于社区发展的农业生态补偿相关基础理论21-30
        2.1.1 法学理论基础21-24
        2.2.2 经济学理论基础24-27
        2.2.3 管理学理论27-30
第三章 农业生态补偿比较研究与实证分析30-38
    3.1 典型国家和地区农业生态补偿制度的考察30-33
        3.1.1 美国农业生态补偿制度——土地存款形式的补贴30-31
        3.1.2 德国农业生态补偿制度——项目支持31
        3.1.3 日本农业生态补偿制度——政策补偿31-32
        3.1.4 墨西哥农业生态补偿制度——农村社区管理的货币补偿32-33
    3.2 国外农业生态补偿的经验教训和对我国的启示33-38
        3.2.1 国外农业生态补偿的经验教训33-35
        3.2.2 国外农业生态补偿的经验教训对我国的启示35-38
第四章 我国农业生态补偿的实证分析—以湖北为调查对象38-53
    4.1 基于社区发展的我国农业生态补偿的现状38-47
        4.1.1 湖北省农业生态环境的概况38-42
        4.1.2 湖北省基于社区发展的农业生态补偿现状42-47
    4.2 农业生态补偿的法律现状及其存在的问题47-53
        4.2.1 农业生态补偿法律制度现状47-49
        4.2.2 农业生态补偿制度存在问题49-51
        4.2.3 我国农业生态补偿运行存在的问题51-53
第五章 构建我国农业生态补偿法律制度53-71
    5.1 农业生态补偿律制度法价值53-57
        5.1.1 安全价值53-54
        5.1.2 秩序价值54
        5.1.3 正义价值54-56
        5.1.4 和谐价值56-57
    5.2 我国农业生态补偿法律制度立法理念57-60
        5.2.1 平等生存权和发展权理念57-58
        5.2.2 倾斜性保护理念58-59
        5.2.3 可持续性公平与发展理念59-60
    5.3 构建我国农业生态补偿法律制度具体设计60-71
        5.3.1 我国农业生态补偿主体法律制度61-62
        5.3.2 农业生态补偿资金管理的法律制度62-64
        5.3.3 我国农业生态补偿标准法律制度64-66
        5.3.4 我国农业生态补偿程序法律制度66-67
        5.3.5 我国农业生态补偿责任法律制度67-68
        5.3.6 我国农业生态补偿救济法律制度68-71
第六章 我国基于社区发展的农业生态补偿运行模式71-78
    6.1 我国农业生态补偿模式选择:社区主导、政府支持71-72
    6.2 我国社区主导政府支持相结合的农业生态补偿法律实践模式具体对策72-78
        6.2.1 政府支持的农业生态补偿法律实践模式具体对策72-73
        6.2.2 社区主导的农业生态补偿法律制度实践模式具体对策73-78
第七章 结语78-81
    7.1 研究结论78-79
    7.2 具体对策79-81
参考文献81-85
附录1 基于社区发展的湖北省农业生态补偿调查问卷85-87
附录2 硕士生在读期间主要学术成果及学术活动87-89
附录3 研究生期间参与课题研究情况89
附录4 研究生期间的社会工作及奖励89-90
致谢90
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