首页 > 硕士 > 教育学 > 正文

运动对上海市超重和肥胖中老年女性健康的影响

The Study on Influence of Sport Towards the Health of the Middle Aged or Old Females of Shanghai

作者: 专业:体育教育学 导师:马海峰 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 上海体育学院

Keywords

Aerobic Exercise, Overweight old females, Fatty Liver, Blood-fat, middle aged females, basic metabolism

        随着人类文明的进步,经济的全球化,人民生活水平也达到未曾有过的高度,加之医疗水平不断取得新的进步,克服了危害人类健康的一个又一个难题,人类的寿命也得以延长。然而目前相关研究表明,肥胖已成为危害人类健康的比较棘手的问题,1999年WHO就宣布肥胖是一种疾病,被称为世界四大慢性病之一。肥胖可以引起动脉粥样硬化、从而导致心脑血管疾病,相关数据表明,肥胖症患者中患高血压、高血脂以及糖尿病的几率较非肥胖人群高。可见肥胖已经是危害人类健康的全球性疾病,预防和治疗肥胖症的任务已经迫在眉睫。建国以来,我国肥胖症患者人数呈大幅度增长趋势,据国务院公布的调查结果显示,我国超重人口高达2亿,而肥胖人口已达到6000万,超重人口基础大,如果不采取相应措施,更多的超重者将发展成为肥胖症患者。人口普查结果显示,上海已经是一个老年化城市,关爱中老年人的健康是每一个人的责任和义务。由于中老年人的基础代谢率逐渐下降,加之女性又担任着繁琐的家务事,使之没有足够多的时间进行锻炼,肥胖成为为困扰中老年女性的一大问题。查阅了相关国内外文献,对肥胖症患者单纯施加有氧运动干预的研究较少,运动干预和严格的营养干预双管齐下进行的研究较多,对动物的研究比对人类的研究较多;分组对比研究较多,对样本进行跟踪调查,对其干预前后进行对比的研究较少;对青少年儿童肥胖症的研究较多,对中老年人群研究较少。市场上各种减肥药扰乱人们视听,很多人选择减肥药进行减肥,却不知道减肥药对自身健康的伤害。中老年女性中很多人抱有以肥为美,认为胖就是健康的错误观念,如果使这部分人从错误的预防和治疗肥胖的误区中走出来,以及如何引导她们进行科学锻炼健康饮食是一个急需解决的问题。本文的研究目的就在于通过有氧运动对超重和肥胖中老年女性进行干预,预防超重向肥胖转化和肥胖者中老年女性进行干预。本文的研究方法采用了文献资料法、问卷调查法、专家访谈法以及实验法。在大量阅读相关文献资料的基础上,根据专家意见制定问卷调查法并确定实验测量指标,根据本文研究内容及实际可操作性设计了实验步骤。本实验方法主要是针对中老年女性制定以有氧运动为主的运动处方并监督其进行科学锻炼。本研究以上海市虹口区和浦东新区138名超重和肥胖中老年女性为研究对象,研究有氧运动干预对其身体成分(BMI、体重、体脂率、WHR)、心血管机能(安静心率、收缩压、舒张压)、血脂(甘油三酯、血总胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白以及低密度脂蛋白)、脂肪肝(肝脏B超)的影响,来探讨单纯的有氧运动干预对超重和肥胖中老年产生的效果及机制。本研究有助于改变人们错误的饮食观念,形成科学健身的习惯,提高人们对超重和肥胖的理性认识和警惕性,增进身心健康,更重要的是能够使越来越多的人掌握科学的运动方法,推动大众体育发展,使终身体育的思想深入人心。经过24周的有氧运动干预后,本文的主要研究结果是:1)超重和肥胖中老年女性的身体成分(体重、BMI、体脂百分比)发生显著性下降。说明本运动干预能够改变人们的饮食习惯,通过科学的锻炼能够增加人体脂肪消耗,对塑造女性良好体型有很大帮助。2)经过时间长达24周的运动干预,超重和肥胖中老年女性的安静心率、舒张压发生显著性改变(P<0.05),表明这些受干预的对象心血管机能得到改善。3)经过干预后,受干预对象的TG、LDL显著下降,LDL/TC下降。表明通过系统的运动和营养干预超重肥胖中老年女性血脂水平得到显著改善,从而达到有效降低动脉粥样硬化以及其他心血管疾病的发生率。4)干预后,受干预对象中肝功能异常人数下降,表明有氧运动能够改善人们的脂肪代谢功能,从而改善肝脏功能,降低脂肪肝恶化风险。5)单纯的有氧运动干预能够有效起到减肥防肥的作用,对身体成分的影响与代谢水平改善相比更显著。建议:1)目前上海市中老年妇女可以按照本文的健康指标参考范围对自己的身体成分进行诊断评价,本文的诊断方法简单易行,这能够使不经常锻炼的中老年女性对自己的身体有个大致的了解,并及时采取相应的措施。2)本实验研究对象为中老年女性,经数据统计显示大多数女性在生育期以及绝经期前开始发胖,这给处于中青年女性预防肥胖症提供了可靠的理论依据,对女性这一社会健康弱势群体减肥防肥具有科学指导意义。3)在本实验过程中,很多居民反映活动场地比较少,希望能够引起相关领导的重视,解决市民体育锻炼的场地问题,这样才能从根本上解决大众体育发展的客观条件。4)希望组织更多的专业人员下社区给市民进行科学锻炼和营养知识的指导,可以与体育专业学生以结对形式对市民进行指导,一方面给体育专业学生多一些实践机会,一方面大力推动我国大众体育的发展,使人们能够根据自身条件进行健康锻炼,真正做到健康锻炼,健康生活。5)经过本次实验,还发现本市的市民体质监测站的器材大部分处于无人使用状态,希望各社区负责人能够带动越来越多的市民关心自己的健康,热爱锻炼,使体质监测站的作用发挥到极致。6)可以多举办一些全民体育运动会,争取使上海市在全国大众体育的发展中起到带头模范作用,以促进城镇体育的发展,进一步为农村体育的发展奠定厚实的基础、积累更多的经验。
    With the development of human civilization and economic globalization, people’s living standard has reached a high degree never been reached. Because of the new progress of health care, there are many problems in medical field have been settled and the human life expectancy is lengthened. However, there is research shows that obesity has become a agent problem need to be absolved. In 1999 WHO declared that obesity is a disease, known as one of the world’s four major chronic diseases. Obesity can cause atherosclerosis, leading to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, the relevant data show that patients suffering from obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol and diabetes risk higher than non-obese people. Since the founding of China’s obese population is doubling in a decade, in October 2004 the State Council promulgated "China’s nutrition and health status of residents," the survey results show that our rate of 22.8% of adult overweight and obesity rate was 7.1%, the number is expected to respectively 200 million and 6000 million, a result of overweight people more than religion, such as not pay attention to prevention, will become more overweight and obese persons. Obesity has been seen is harmful to human health, global diseases, prevention and treatment of obesity task is an urgent need. Census results show that Shanghai has become an aging city in the elderly’s health care is everyone’s responsibility and obligation. In the elderly because of the gradual decline in basal metabolic rate, coupled with women, served as the tedious chores, so that not enough time to exercise, obesity, a troubled middle-aged women as a major problem. Access to the relevant domestic and international literature on obesity in patients with simple aerobic exercise intervention study to exert less, exercise intervention and rigorous two-pronged study nutrition interventions are more animal studies to human studies more than; group comparison study more, to conduct follow-up survey of a sample of its intervention in the study were compared before and after the less; pairs of children and adolescents obesity study more, study less for the older age groups. A variety of weight-loss drugs on the market to disrupt people’s audio-visual, many people choose to diet pills to lose weight, do not know weight-loss drugs on their own health damage. Middle-aged women, many of whom have to enrich for the United States that fat is a healthy misconception that if people make it from the wrong part of the prevention and treatment of obesity out of misunderstanding in the past, and how to guide them in their healthy diet is a scientific exercise urgent problems. The purpose of this research lies in the adoption of aerobic exercise on overweight and obesity in middle-aged women, to intervene in the prevention of overweight and obese to the obese into middle-aged women, to intervene. This research method used in the literature and data, questionnaire survey, expert interviews, as well as experiment. A large number of reading literature on the basis of the information, based on expert opinion to develop a questionnaire survey method and to identify experimental measure, according to the contents of this paper and the actual design of the experimental steps in operability. The experimental method is mainly aimed at middle-aged women, mainly developed in order to exercise prescription for aerobic exercise and monitor its scientific exercise. In this study, and the Pudong New Area, Shanghai, Hongkou District,138 overweight and obese middle-aged women, as the research object to study the aerobic exercise intervention on their body composition (BMI, weight, body fat ratio, WHR), cardiovascular function (quiet heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure), dyslipidemia (triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein), the level of liver function (liver B-) effects, to explore a simple aerobic exercise intervention on overweight and obese middle-aged effect and its mechanism. This study will help change people’s eating the wrong idea, a scientific fitness habits, raise awareness of overweight and obesity rational awareness and vigilance, enhancing physical and mental health is more important to be able to make more and more people grasp the scientific campaign methods, to promote sport for development, so that idea deeply rooted among lifetime sports. After 24 weeks of aerobic exercise intervention, this paper’s major findings are:1) overweight and obesity in middle-aged women, body composition (body weight, BMI, body fat percentage) occurred significantly decreased. Intervention in the present campaign to change people’s eating habits, through scientific exercise can increase body fat consumption, to create a good body of women of great help.2) After the time up to 24-week exercise intervention in overweight and obese middle-aged women in the quiet heart rate, diastolic blood pressure changes occurred significantly (P<0.05), that these objects by the intervention of cardiovascular function increased. 3) After intervention by the object interfere with TG, LDL decreased significantly, LDL/TC drop. Shows that the movement through the system and nutrition intervention in overweight and obese middle-aged women, a significant improvement in blood lipid levels, so as to achieve effectively reduce atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular disease incidence.4) after intervention by intervention in the object drop in the number of abnormal liver function, indicating that aerobic exercise can improve people’s fat metabolism, thus improving liver function, reduce the risk of fatty liver deterioration.5) a simple aerobic exercise intervention can effectively lose weight to play the role of anti-fertilizer on the body composition and metabolic effects of the level of improvement compared with more pronounced.
        

运动对上海市超重和肥胖中老年女性健康的影响

摘要4-6
Abstract6-7
1 前言11-13
2 文献综述13-20
    2.1 相关定义13-16
        2.1.1 超重和肥胖的定义及其评价标准13-15
        2.1.2 血脂的定义及其诊断标准15
        2.1.3 脂肪肝的定义及诊断标准15
        2.1.4 超重与肥胖以及血脂异常、脂肪肝和空腹血糖异常的危害性15-16
    2.2 肥胖的原因16-17
        2.2.1 营养因素16
        2.2.2 运动因素16
        2.2.3 遗传因素16-17
        2.2.4 热量代谢异常17
        2.2.5 摄食中枢的功能异常17
        2.2.6 其他因素17
    2.3 国内外研究现状17-19
        2.3.1 国外研究现状17-18
        2.3.2 国内研究现状18-19
    2.4 小结19-20
3 研究对象与研究方法20-23
    3.1 研究对象20
    3.2 研究方法20-22
        3.2.1 文献资料法20
        3.2.2 专家访谈法20
        3.2.3 问卷调查法20
        3.2.4 实验法20-22
        3.2.5 数据统计法22
    3.3 主要测试的指标和方法22-23
        3.3.1 生理指标和方法22-23
        3.3.2 生化指标23
4 结果与分析23-30
    4.1 研究结果23-24
        4.1.1 干预前后超重和肥胖中老年女性身体成分的变化23
        4.1.2 干预前后超重和肥胖中老年女性机能指标的变化23
        4.1.3 干预前后超重和肥胖中老年女性血脂水平变化23-24
        4.1.4 干预前后超重和肥胖中老年女性肝脏B超水平变化24
    4.2 分析与讨论24-30
        4.2.1 运动干预对超重和肥胖中老年女性身体成分的影响24-25
        4.2.2 运动干预对超重和肥胖中老年女性减肥的机制25-26
        4.2.3 干预前后超重和肥胖中老年女性机能变化26-27
        4.2.4 干预前后超重和肥胖中老年女性血液指标(血脂四项)变化27-29
        4.2.5 干预前后超重和肥胖中老年女性肝功能水平变化29-30
5 结论与建议30-32
    5.1 结论30-31
    5.2 本文研究的局限性31
    5.3 建议31-32
致谢32-33
参考文献33-36
附件136-37
附件237
        下载全文需50


本文地址:

上一篇:“功夫王”赛事的发展现状及对策研究
下一篇:乒乓球技术体系的分类及效用研究

分享到: 分享运动对上海市超重和肥胖中老年女性健康的影响到腾讯微博           收藏
评论排行
公告