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咸干花生微波焙烤工艺研究与品质评价

Study of Microwave Baking on Salty Peanuts and Quality Evaluation

作者: 专业:农产品加工及贮藏工程 导师:黄凤洪 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 华中农业大学

Keywords

Salty peanuts, microwave, volatile flavor compounds, oil oxidation, quantitative relationship, HS-SPME/GC/MS

        咸干花生是一种重要的花生休闲食品,生产中存在加工工艺落后、生产周期长、风味和营养破坏程度大、能耗高等问题。针对上述问题,本论文采用隧道式微波炉进行脱水干燥,代替传统的烘焙方式,并对工艺进行优化,使生产周期显著缩短,能耗明显降低。为评价微波干燥脱水对咸干花生产品品质的影响,比较研究了3种不同原料、不同干燥工艺条件下产品的风味、理化指标、安全指标。同时,重点研究了微波产品在贮藏过程中风味和品质的变化规律,以指导咸干花生的生产和消费。主要研究结果如下:1.研究优化得到花生挥发性风味物质的固相微萃取条件:萃取温度80℃,萃取时间40min,解析时间5min,色谱柱类型HP-5MS。采用气质联用选择离子扫描模式,建立了花生中挥发性成分的定性定量方法。绘制了花生焙烤食品中7种重要风味物质的标准曲线,相关系数均在0.99以上,标准物质回收率在85%~101%之间,相对标准偏差小于6.9%,检出限为0.63~14.3μg/kg。此方法精密度高,准确可靠。2.在实验室小试条件下研究了大白沙、鲁花、四粒红三种具有代表性的原料在不同微波功率和载物量条件下的失水特性,通过响应面分析法优化得到小试工艺条件并建立回归模型,在此基础上利用隧道式微波炉进行扩大生产,优化得到咸干花生的中试生产条件:四粒红:200g、4800W、6min20s;大白沙:200g、4800W、7min50s;鲁花:200g、4800W、5min,均为连续进样。3.分析了花生原料和焙烤后产品的挥发性风味成分,鉴定出微波焙烤花生中的29种挥发性成分,其中杂环类化合物9种,醛类化合物7种,醇类化合物3种,烯类化合物3种,酚类化合物2种,酯类化合物3种以及其他2种化合物。对7种典型的重要风味物质进行定量分析发现大白沙、鲁花、四粒红中总含量分别为4.35mg/kg、2.16mg/kg、1.76mg/kg,且大白沙中的不良风味物质苯乙醛含量最低,为0.36mg/kg。4.比较研究了不同干燥方式(微波,烘箱)对咸干花生产品风味的影响,结果表明,采用微波加热方式生产的产品不仅理化品质优于烘箱烤制产品,且挥发性成分含量更高,风味更浓郁;通过比较不同风味花生产品的挥发性成分,发现奶油味花生特殊风味成分更多,香味更浓郁。5.研究了咸干花生中试产品在贮藏过程中的品质变化,发现大约27周之后花生中油脂出现快速氧化,7种典型挥发性风味物质含量明显降低,感官评价结果表明此时产品甜味和烤花生味变淡,苦味和纸板味加重。三种花生在贮藏过程中理化指标、风味成分和感官评定表现出相同的变化规律,但变化程度有所差异,大白沙品质优于论文研究中的另两个品种。6.采用典型相关分析方法,建立了长时间贮藏过程中风味成分与油脂氧化、感官评价之间的变化关系,两组变量之间呈极显著的相关关系。通过深入研究贮藏中的变化以及这些变化关系,为推荐最佳食用时间提供了一定的依据。
    At present, Salty peanut is an important peanut snack food. There are some problems exsisted in salty peanut foods,such as backward processing,long production cycle,great flavor and nutrional damage, high energy consumption and so on.In order to improve the core process-dehyration,we try to use the tunnel microwave technology instead of traditonal baking methods,the production cycle was shorten and energy consumption was lower siginificantly, also evaluate quality and flavoring of microwave salty peanuts, research the variety of flavor compounds and quality in the long storage periods.The main conclusions were obtained as follows:1. A detection method-headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) was build to analysis microwave roasted-peanuts volatile compounds. The best extraction conditions was as follows:extraction temperature is 80℃,extraction time is forty minites,resolution time is five minites and the best chromatographic column is HP-5MS. The main volatile flavoring compounds were identified and quantified by GC—MS under selective ion monitoring mode, linear calibration curves were obtained with correlation coefficients of more than 0.99,The average recoveries is 85%-101%,relative average deviation was below 6.9%,The detection limits were in the range of 0.63-14.3μg/kg.2. The dehydrating characteristics of three kinds of peanuts were studied including different microwave power and sample load, using microwave drying technology instead of traditional bakes. According to the Box-Benhnken center-united experimental design principles, miacrowave process conditions were optimized.We expand the production using tunnel microwave oven based on the paramenters,the best condition was as follows:Silihong:200g,4800W,6min20s:Dabaisha:200g,4800W,7min50s;Luhua:200g, 4800W,5min,continuously.3. The components of three tunnel-microwave roasted peanuts were analyzed using above established methods. The results indicated that there are totally 29 components, including 9 heterocyclics,7 aldehyde,3 alcohol,3 ene,2 phenol and 3 ester. Comparing the difference of three varieties of roasted-peanuts by quantitative detection of six above volatile compounds, The total contents of is 4.35mg/kg,2.16mg/kg amdl.76mg/kg The Da baisha microwave roasted-peanuts was the best choice for the roasted peanuts by tunnel-microwave drying technology because it has the highest content of flavoring compounds and lowest content of phenylaldehyde (0.36mg/kg)4. By comparing the flavoring influence of different drying methods (microwave and baking oven),it showed that the peanuts using the miavrowave have the better quality and flavoring than that using baking oven.At the same time, comparing flavor components of peanuts products of different flavor,the results showed that cream peanuts have more charcateristical flavor compounds and stronger flavor than the orther typies.5. Researching the quality variety of microwave pilot products in the long storage,peanuts appeare rapid oxidationa after 27weeks,all the valatile flavor compounds arise to fading at the same time, stweet and roasted peanutty fade,while bitty and cardboardy increse.The three kinds of peanuts appear the same vairty regluar including the physical and chemical indicators, flavor compounds and sensory evaluatiom. But the rate of variety were different.Dabaisha peanuts have the lower oxidation rate and better quality than other two typies.6. Research on microwave roasted-peanuts in relationship of lipid oxidation, flavor compounds and sensory evaluation using the canonical correlation analysis. The two variable groups have the significant relationship.By studying the variety relationship of quality futher,we can give a guide to the best edible time.
        

咸干花生微波焙烤工艺研究与品质评价

摘要8-10
Abstract10-11
英文缩略表12-13
第一章 绪论13-23
    1.1 国内外花生休闲产品现状13-14
    1.2 咸干花生的生产工艺及品质研究现状14-21
        1.2.1 传统的咸干花生生产工艺14-15
        1.2.2 微波干燥技术简介15-17
        1.2.3 咸干花生的感官评价17-18
        1.2.4 挥发性风味成分18-21
            1.2.4.1 挥发性成分形成机理18-20
            1.2.4.2 挥发性风味成分的分析方法20-21
    1.3 本论文研究的目的和意义21-22
    1.4 本论文主要研究内容22-23
第二章 花生风味与反式脂肪酸分析方法的建立23-34
    1 前言23
    2 材料与方法23-27
        2.1 实验材料与仪器23-24
            2.1.1 原料23
            2.1.2 试剂23-24
            2.1.3 主要仪器24
        2.2 测定方法24-27
            2.2.1 花生中油脂的提取24
            2.2.2 花生中风味物质提取条件的优化24-26
                2.2.2.1 色谱柱型选择24-25
                2.2.2.2 萃取条件的选择25
                2.2.2.3 气相色谱-质谱分析条件25
                2.2.2.4 花生香气成分的定量分析25-26
            2.2.3 反式脂肪酸检测方法的建立26-27
                2.2.3.1 标准物质的配制26
                2.2.3.2 气相色谱分析条件26-27
                2.2.3.3 脂肪酸甲酯的制备27
                2.2.3.4 相对质量校正因子的确定27
    3 结果与分析27-33
        3.1 花生挥发性风味成分的测定方法27-32
            3.1.1 样品萃取条件的优化27-29
            3.1.2 色谱柱型的选择29-31
            3.1.3 回归方程、相关系数、平均回收率、相对标准偏差及检出限31
            3.1.4 方法精密度与回收率31-32
        3.2 反式脂肪酸的测定结果32-33
    4 本章小结33-34
第三章 微波生产咸干花生的失水特性研究与工艺优化34-47
    1 前言34
    2 材料与方法34-36
        2.1 实验材料与仪器34
            2.1.1 原料34
            2.1.2 主要仪器34
        2.2 测定方法34-35
        2.3 试验参数测定35
            2.3.1 花生失水速率与耗电量35
            2.3.2 咸干花生感官评定35
        2.4 微波脱水干燥特性试验35-36
        2.5 响应面分析36
        2.6 中试条件的优化36
    3 结果与讨论36-45
        3.1 微波干燥花生果(大白沙)的失水特性36-38
            3.1.1 微波功率的影响36-37
            3.1.2 载物量的影响37-38
        3.2 微波干燥工艺的响应面分析38-42
            3.2.1 各因素对失水速率的影响39-40
            3.2.2 各因素对单位耗电量的影响40-41
            3.2.3 各因素对感官评定的影响41-42
            3.2.4 微波工艺参数的优化42
        3.3 四粒红花生的微波工艺条件优化42-43
        3.4 鲁花花生的微波工艺条件优化43
        3.5 模型验证43-44
        3.6 微波花生中试条件44-45
    4 本章小结45-47
第四章 微波生产咸干花生中试产品品质评价47-61
    1 前言47
    2 材料与方法47-51
        2.1 实验材料与仪器47
        2.2 不同咸干花生原料的比较47-48
            2.2.1 粗脂肪含量47-48
            2.2.2 粗蛋白含量48
            2.2.3 水分的测定48
            2.2.4 脂肪酸组成48
            2.2.5 挥发性风味成分48
        2.3 不同咸干花生产品的制备48-49
            2.3.1 不同原料的咸干花生产品48
            2.3.2 不同焙烤工艺的比较48
            2.3.3 调味料的比较48-49
        2.4 产品评价方法49-51
            2.4.1 货架期的推导49
            2.4.2 理化指标的测定49-50
                2.4.2.1 水分的测定49
                2.4.2.2 酸价的测定49-50
                2.4.2.3 过氧化值的测定50
                2.4.2.4 共轭二烯、三烯的测定50
            2.4.3 反式脂肪酸的测定50-51
            2.4.4 挥发性成分51
    3 结果与讨论51-59
        3.1 三种花生原料的比较51-53
            3.1.1 花生原料品质比较51-52
            3.1.2 原料的挥发性成分分析52-53
        3.2 产品的货架期53-54
            3.2.1 货架期的测定53-54
            3.2.2 产品货架期比较54
        3.3 产品品质比较54-55
        3.4 产品风味比较55-59
            3.4.1 微波烤制产品挥发性成分的GC/MS分析55-57
            3.4.2 挥发性成分的定量测定结果57
            3.4.3 微波和烘箱生产咸干花生风味比较57-58
            3.4.4 不同风味的咸干花生挥发性成分分析58-59
    4 本章小结59-61
第五章 贮藏过程中花生风味的变化及与油脂氧化的关系61-78
    1 前言61
    2 材料与方法61-63
        2.1 实验材料与仪器61-62
            2.1.1 原料61-62
            2.1.2 主要仪器62
        2.2 测定方法62-63
            2.2.1 微波咸干花生的贮藏62
            2.2.2 微波咸干花生油脂的提取62
            2.2.3 油脂中水分、酸价、过氧化值的测定62
            2.2.4 风味成分的定量分析62
            2.2.5 咸干花生产品的感官评分方法62-63
        2.3 数据处理方法63
    3 结果与分析63-76
        3.1 贮藏过程中理化指标的变化63-67
            3.1.1 酸价、过氧化值的变化及与水分含量的关系63-65
            3.1.2 贮藏过程中脆度与水分的变化关系65-66
            3.1.3 贮藏后期三种花生品质的比较66-67
        3.2 贮藏过程中挥发性成分的变化67-70
            3.2.1 挥发性成分的变化67-68
            3.2.2 贮藏后期三种花生风味的变化比较68-70
        3.3 贮藏过程中感官评定的变化70-72
        3.4 风味成分与油脂氧化的典型相关性72-74
        3.5 风味成分和感官评价的典型相关性74-76
    4 本章小结76-78
第六章 全文总结78-80
    1 结论78
    2 创新之处78
    3 展望78-80
参考文献80-86
致谢86-87
作者简介87
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