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低盐度腌腊鱼生产中几个安全指标的变化及评价

Change on Several Safety Indicators and Evaluation during Processing of Low-Salinity Cured Fish

作者: 专业:食品科学 导师:熊善柏 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 华中农业大学

Keywords

Cured fish, safety indicators, safety evaluation

        腌腊鱼制品是我国传统水产加工食品,因其风味独特而深受广大消费者的喜爱。在腌腊鱼加工过程中,由于微生物和原料鱼中酶类的作用,发生硝酸盐的还原、蛋白质的水解、氨基酸的脱羧和脱胺、脂质的水解与氧化等生化变化,使鱼体中酸度、挥发性含氮化合物、亚硝胺以及醛酮类物质含量增加,而导致消费者对腌腊鱼的安全性产生担忧。本文拟以白鲢为原料,研究食盐添加量、腌制温度、腌制时间和干燥条件对干腌法制作的腌腊鱼中亚硝酸盐含量、硝酸盐含量、挥发性盐基氮含量、酸价、过氧化值、TBA值和发光强度的影响,分析N-二甲基亚硝胺和N-二乙基亚硝胺在腌腊鱼生产过程中的变化,以评价腌腊鱼的安全性。主要研究内容及研究结果如下:1.研究了腌制条件和干燥条件对腌腊鱼中亚硝酸盐、硝酸盐和挥发性盐基氮含量的影响,分析了N-二甲基亚硝胺和N-二乙基亚硝胺含量在腌腊鱼生产过程中的变化。腌制条件和干燥方式对腌腊鱼中亚硝酸盐、硝酸盐和挥发性盐基氮含量有明显影响。食盐添加量越低,腌制温度越高,腌腊鱼中亚硝酸盐、硝酸盐和挥发性盐基氮含量越高;而随着腌制时间的延长,腌腊鱼中的亚硝酸盐和挥发性盐基氮含量增加,硝酸盐含量先降低后增加。在4种干燥方式中,真空冷冻干燥所制得的腌腊鱼的亚硝酸盐、硝酸盐和挥发性盐基氮含量较低,热风干燥制得的腌腊鱼的亚硝酸盐含量最高。在腌腊鱼生产过程中,N-二甲基亚硝胺含量≤0.52μg/kg,N-二乙基亚硝胺均未检出。在试验条件下生产的腌腊鱼制品的亚硝酸盐含量为0.26~2.55 mg/kg、硝酸盐含量为0.13~1.05 mg/g,挥发性盐基氮含量1.75~22.96 mg/100g,N-二甲基亚硝胺含量≤0.52μg/kg,N-二乙基亚硝胺未检出。2.研究了腌制条件和干燥条件对腌腊鱼酸价、过氧化值和TBA值的影响。腌制条件和干燥方式对腌腊鱼的酸价、过氧化值和TBA值有明显影响。食盐添加量越低,腌腊鱼的酸价越高;腌制温度越高、腌制时间越长,腌腊鱼中的酸价、过氧化值和TBA值越高。在4种干燥方式中,采用微波干燥制得的腌腊鱼的酸价、过氧化值,特别是TBA值明显高于其它干燥方法,而真空冷冻干燥所制得的腌腊鱼的酸价、过氧化值和TBA值的变化较小。在试验条件下生产的腌腊鱼制品的酸价为0.07~0.63 mgKOH/g,过氧化值为0.0052~0.018g/100g,TBA值为1.23~10.54 mgMDA/kg。3.研究了腌制条件和干燥条件对腌腊鱼鱼背和鱼腹发光强度的影响。腌制条件和干燥方式对腌腊鱼的发光强度均没有影响。在试验条件下生产的腌腊鱼制品的发光强度为705~751 counts/s,远小于发光腌腊鱼的发光强度1172116~1112566 counts/s,说明在正常的生产条件下制得的腌腊鱼是安全的。4.采用食盐添加量为6%,腌制温度为10℃,腌制时间为4d的工艺条件,经干燥所制得的腌腊鱼中的亚硝酸盐含量、N-二甲基亚硝胺含量、N-二乙基亚硝胺含量、酸价和过氧化值均小于GB 2760-2007食品添加剂使用卫生标准、DB44/421-2007广式腊味制品、GB 2762-2005食品中污染物限量、GB 10136-2005腌制生食动物性水产品卫生标准和DB 43/344-2007腌腊鱼标准的限量规定。在试验条件下生产的腌腊鱼制品是安全的。
    Cured fish product is a traditional fishery food in China. It is popular with consumers because of its unique flavor. As the effect of microorganisms and enzymes in raw fish, it leads to a series of biochemical changes, such as nitrate reduction, protein hydrolysis, amino acid decarboxylation and deamination, lipid hydrolysis and oxidation with acidity, volatile nitrogen compounds, nitrosamines, aldehydes and ketones increasing during processing, which make consumers worry about the safety of cured fish. To evaluate the safety indicators of cured fish, effects of salt dosage, curing temperature, curing time, and drying conditions on nitrite content, nitrate content, TVB-N content, acid value, peroxide value, TBA value and luminous intensity of cured silver carp by dry-cured method were studied. The changes of N-dimethylnitrosamine and N-diethylnitrosamines were analyzed in the processing of cured fish. The main results were as follows:1. Effects of curing and drying conditions on nitrite, nitrate and TVB-N content of cured fish and the changes of N-dimethylnitrosamine and N-diethylnitrosamine were analyzed. Curing conditions and drying methods significantly affected nitrite, nitrate and TVB-N content. The nitrite, nitrate and TVB-N content of cured fish were higher with low salt dosage and high curing temperature. The nitrite and TVB-N content were higher, while nitrate content decreased initially and then increased as curing time prolonged. Among the four drying methods, the nitrite, nitrate and TVB-N content of cured fish using vacuum freeze-drying were lower, while the nitrite content of cured fish using hot-air drying were the highest. Under the experimental conditions, the nitrite content was 0.26~2.55mg/kg, nitrate content was 0.13~1.05 mg/g, TVB-N content was 1.75~22.96 mg/100g, N-dimethylnitrosamine content≤0.52μg/kg and N-diethylnitrosamines was not detected.2. Effects of curing and drying conditions on acid value, peroxide value, TBA value of cured fish were studied. The acid value of cured fish were higher with low salt dosage. The acid value, peroxide value, TBA value of cured fish were higher with curing temperature increased and curing time prolonged. Among the four drying methods, acid value, peroxide value, especially TBA value of cured fish using microwave drying were higher, while acid value, peroxide value and TBA value of cured fish using vacuum freeze-drying were lower. Under the experimental conditions, the acid value was 0.073~0.63 mgKOH/g, peroxide value was 0.0052~0.018 g/100g, TBA value was 1.23~10.54 mgMDA/kg.3. Effects of curing and drying conditions on Luminous intensity of back and belly of cured fish were studied. Curing and the drying conditions did not affect the luminous intensity of cured fish. Under the experimental conditions, the luminous intensity was 705~751 counts/s, which was much lower than that of luminous cured fish. It is indicated that the cured fish is safe under normal production conditions.4. The cured fish were cured at 10℃for 4 days with salt dosage of 6%, the nitrite content, TVB-N content, N-dimethylnitrosamine content, N-diethylnitrosamine content, acid value, peroxide value, TBA value and luminous intensity of dry-cured fish were much smaller than that of the standard limit requirements (GB 2760-2007, DB 44/421-2007, GB 2762-2005, GB 10136-2005 and DB 43/344-2007). The cured fish products under the conditions above were safe for eating.
        

低盐度腌腊鱼生产中几个安全指标的变化及评价

目录4-6
摘要6-8
ABSTRACT8-9
1 前言10-16
    1.1 腌腊鱼加工工艺研究10-11
    1.2 腌腊鱼在生产过程中的品质变化11
    1.3 加工条件对腌腊鱼品质的影响11-12
    1.4 腌腊鱼中危害因子的分析12-14
        1.4.1 亚硝酸盐和亚硝胺12-13
        1.4.2 蛋白质分解产物13
        1.4.3 脂质的氧化与分解产物13-14
        1.4.4 有害微生物14
    1.5 研究目的及内容14-16
2 材料与方法16-20
    2.1 试验材料16-17
        2.1.1 原料16
        2.1.2 主要试验试剂16-17
    2.2 主要试验仪器17
    2.3 主要试验方法17-20
        2.3.1 样品制备方法17-19
        2.3.2 测定指标的分析方法19
        2.3.3 气相色谱条件19
        2.3.4 数据处理19-20
3 结果与分析20-43
    3.1 腌腊鱼生产中亚硝酸盐类和含氮化合物的变化及评价20-30
        3.1.1 食盐添加量对腌腊鱼中亚硝酸盐、硝酸盐和挥发性盐基氮含量的影响20-22
        3.1.2 腌制温度对腌腊鱼中亚硝酸盐、硝酸盐和挥发性盐基氮含量的影响22-24
        3.1.3 腌制时间对腌腊鱼中亚硝酸盐、硝酸盐和挥发性盐基氮含量的影响24-26
        3.1.4 干燥条件对腌腊鱼中亚硝酸盐、硝酸盐和挥发性盐基氮含量的影响26-27
        3.1.5 N-二甲基亚硝胺和N-二乙基亚硝胺在腌腊鱼生产过程中的变化27-28
        3.1.6 安全评价28-29
        3.1.7 小结29-30
    3.2 腌腊鱼生产中脂类氧化分解产物的变化及评价30-37
        3.2.1 食盐添加量对腌腊鱼酸价、过氧化值和TBA值的影响30-32
        3.2.2 腌制温度对腌腊鱼酸价、过氧化值和TBA值的影响32-34
        3.2.3 腌制时间对腌腊鱼酸价、过氧化值和TBA值的影响34-35
        3.2.4 干燥条件对腌腊鱼酸价、过氧化值和TBA值的影响35-36
        3.2.5 安全评价36-37
        3.2.6 小结37
    3.3 腌腊鱼生产中发光强度的变化及评价37-43
        3.3.1 发光腌腊鱼发光强度的检测37-38
        3.3.2 食盐添加量对腌腊鱼发光强度的影响38-39
        3.3.3 腌制温度对腌腊鱼发光强度的影响39-40
        3.3.4 腌制时间对腌腊鱼发光强度的影响40
        3.3.5 干燥条件对腌腊鱼发光强度的影响40-41
        3.3.6 安全评价41-42
        3.3.7 小结42-43
4 讨论43-45
    4.1 腌腊鱼制品的安全性43
    4.2 腌制鱼肉和猪肉的发光现象43-45
结论45-46
参考文献46-51
致谢51-52
附录52
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