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蔬菜钵苗移栽机关键部件的参数优化、数字化设计及研制

Optimization and Digital Design and Manufacture of Key Components of Vegetables Transplanter

作者: 专业:机械设计及理论 导师:赵匀 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 浙江理工大学

Keywords

Vegetables transplanter, Transplanting mechanism, Computer aided design, Digital design

        移栽是蔬菜生产过程中的一个重要环节,具有对气候补偿和使作物生育提早的综合效益。它可以充分利用光热资源,其经济效益和社会效益均非常可观。但目前移栽过程采用人工移栽,劳动强度大、作业效率低,难以实现大面积栽植制约了生产规模,影响了生产效益,同时也限制了蔬菜生产的发展空间。目前国内对移栽机械的研究和开发基本属于仿造,没有对国外的移栽机进行重大的改进和技术上的突破,而且国外移栽机结构复杂,价格昂贵,在国内推广难度很大。因此设计一种新型的移栽机械已成为我国蔬菜种植业发展的迫切需求。本文在总结吸收了国内外各种移栽机的优缺点和实验室已有研究成果的基础上,基于一种钵苗移栽机构——杠杆顶出式机构,设计了蔬菜钵苗移栽机。该机的特点有:结构简单,工作可靠;易保证株距的均匀性;能实现开沟、施肥、移栽和覆土等工序。该蔬菜移栽装置已公开发明专利(200810063013.8)和实用新型专利(200820121105.2);并已公开发明专利蔬菜移栽装置的压盘装置(200910099278.8)。本文主要的研究内容如下:1.研究国内外各种蔬菜移栽机的结构及原理和实验室已有的研究成果,从蔬菜钵苗移栽机移栽机构的机理分析入手,首先根据设计要求确定蔬菜移栽机整机的基本参数,然后根据整机结构,通过建立数学模型,应用MATLAB编写程序快速准确的确定传动比、顶杆相位差和顶出时间等机构重要参数。2.根据已确定的参数,对蔬菜移栽机的核心部件——杠杆顶出式机构建立数学模型,基于MATLAB对杠杆顶出式机构进行运动学分析、动力学分析和参数优化,确定了六组杠杆顶出式机构的基本参数及相关机构的参数;根据确定参数应用UG软件对移栽机构进行实体建模,基于ADAMS软件对建立的移栽机构模型进行虚拟样机仿真,并进行结果分析,验证理论设计结果是否正确。3.在蔬菜移栽机构研究的基础上,根据农艺要求,为了完成开沟、移栽、施肥和覆土等工序,基于CAD技术和UG软件对蔬菜钵苗移栽机关键部件进行计算机辅助设计,包括开沟覆土装置、压秧盘装置、施肥装置和传动系统。在传动系统中,部分用的是链传动,为了快速确定实际中心距和链节数,解决销轴的虚拟定位和链条的虚拟装配问题,基于UG软件对链条进行参数化研究。4.为了实现对蔬菜移栽机的移栽装置零部件的系列化设计,以适应不同蔬菜移栽的农艺要求,借助VB.net编写程序在UG软件中添加自定义的菜单项,对移栽机构进行数字化研究;用户可根据不同蔬菜的农艺要求,输入有关参数即可实现移栽机构的数字化变形设计;并对变形模型应用ADAMS软件进行仿真分析,验证变形模型是否正确;为提高设计效率,减少重复劳动,通过对UG二次开发实现了装配图明细表的同步更新。5.对蔬菜钵苗移栽机构进行加工研制和物理样机试验,基于实验台和高速摄像对其运动性能进行试验验证,确定机构是否满足设计要求。
    Transplanting is a key process of vegetables production, have a comprehensive benefits of climate compensation and early crops growth. One can make full use of its light and heat resources, and get an impressive economic benefit and social benefit as well. However, the previous Transplanting process possess disadvantage of labor intensity, low working efficiency and difficult to realize its large scale production, which restricts its production capacity, benefits and limits its development. space At present, domestic transplanters are mainly imitating the foreign transplanter, and have not maken any significant improvement and breakthrough for foreign transplanter. Furthermore, the foreign transplanter own a complex structure and a high price, which make it difficult to popularize in China. Therefore, to design a new type of vegetables transplanter has become an urgent demand of China’s vegetable planting development.Based on the summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the domestic and foreign vegetables transplanter and absorbed the research achievements of laboratory, the paper design a new type of vegetables transplanter on the basis of the ported-seedling transplanting mechanism--the lever ejection mechanism, which is more simple, reliably and efficently and economic, as well as easily realizing open ditch, fertilization, transplanting, furrow cover etc. This device has publicly vegetables transplanting invention patent (200810063013.8) and utility model patent (200820121105.2), And has publicly invention patent of vegetables transplanting device of platen (200910099278.8). The paper’s main research are showed as follows:1. Make a research of the abroad vegetables transplanter and principle of the existing research results of laboratory. Firstly, determine the basic parameters of the transplanter based on the mechanism analysis of the ported-seedling transplanting mechanism and the requirement of design. Then definite the important structure parameters quickly and accurately, such as the transmission ratio, phase separation of ejector rob and time of ejection by establishing a mathematical model and MATLAB program.2. Establish the mathematical model of the core components--the lever ejection mechanism according to above-mentioned parameters of vegetables transplanter, carry on the mechanism of kinematics and dynamic analysis and parameter optimization on base of MATLAB software to select the best parameter of the six groups of the lever ejection mechanism and related institutions. Model the transplanting mechanism based on its parameters by UG software. Then carry on the the simulation analysis based on ADAMS software and determine whether the result is correct.3. Design the key components of vegetables transplanter based on CAD technology and UG software, including opening ditch device, furrow covering device, platen device, fertilization device and transmission system. In the transmission system, in order to determine the width between centres quickly and solve pin shaft of virtual positioning and chain of virtual assembly problem, carry on parametric studies of chain based on UG software.4. Add vb.net program custom to menu item of transplanting mechanism in UG software so as to achieve series design of the vegetables transplanting mechenism quickly and adapt to different vegetables requirements. Users can input parameters on the custom menu according to different agronomic requirements of vegetables, obtain the needed mechanism model by the digital deformation design, And carry on the simulation analysis of the deformation model based on ADAMS software, determine whether the deformation model is correct. Accomplished the assembly list update through the secondary development of UG software as well as improving the design efficiency, reducing duplication of labor.5. Manufacture and Process the vegetables transplanting mechenism. Decide whether the mechenism meet the design requirements based on mechenism performance test of experimental platform and high-speed camera.
        

蔬菜钵苗移栽机关键部件的参数优化、数字化设计及研制

摘要7-9
Abstract9-10
第一章 绪论11-21
    1.1 前言11-12
    1.2 国内外蔬菜移栽机的发展概述12-16
        1.2.1 国外蔬菜移栽机械的发展概述12-13
        1.2.2 国内蔬菜移栽机械的发展概述13-16
    1.3 国内蔬菜移栽机存在的主要问题和发展方向16-17
        1.3.1 国内蔬菜移栽机存在的主要问题16
        1.3.2 国内蔬菜移栽机的发展方向16-17
    1.4 数字化设计的研究意义17-19
        1.4.1 基于三维造型软件的参数化设计18
        1.4.2 基于虚拟样机技术的试验验证18-19
        1.4.3 基于三维造型软件的装配图明细表同步导出19
    1.5 课题的研究内容19-20
    1.6 本章小结20-21
第二章 蔬菜钵苗移栽机的移栽机构创新研究21-28
    2.1 蔬菜钵苗移栽机移栽机构的机理分析21-22
    2.2 蔬菜钵苗移栽机移栽机构的特点22-23
    2.3 蔬菜钵苗移栽机的基本参数23-24
    2.4 移栽机构传动比、顶杆相位差和时间的计算24-27
    2.5 本章小结27-28
第三章 蔬菜钵苗移栽机构的理论分析及虚拟仿真28-52
    3.1 杠杆顶出式机构的运动学分析28-36
        3.1.1 顶出行程的计算29-30
        3.1.2 数学优化模型的建立30-31
        3.1.3 运动学分析结果31-36
    3.2 杠杆顶出式机构的动力学分析36-42
        3.2.1 机构的受力分析36-37
        3.2.2 建立动力学方程37-39
        3.2.3 动力学分析结果39-41
        3.2.4 凸轮、杠杆输入端作用轮廓曲线设计41-42
    3.3 蔬菜钵苗移栽机构的 ADAMS 运动仿真42-49
        3.3.1 ADAMS 建立动态仿真模型的方法步骤42-43
        3.3.2 杠杆顶出式机构虚拟样机在 ADAMS 中的实现43-45
        3.3.3 蔬菜钵苗移栽机的运动学仿真45-46
        3.3.4 结果分析46-49
    3.4 扭转弹簧的设计49-51
    3.5 本章小结51-52
第四章 蔬菜钵苗移栽机的整机结构分析与设计52-65
    4.1 CAD 技术和UG 软件系统概况52
    4.2 钵苗盘的介绍52
    4.3 蔬菜钵苗移栽机的主要组成部件及其功能52-59
        4.3.1 移栽装置53-55
        4.3.2 传动系统55-57
        4.3.3 施肥装置57-58
        4.3.4 压秧盘装置58
        4.3.5 开沟、覆土和支撑装置58-59
        4.3.6 秧盘架装置59
    4.4 基于UG 重用库的滚子链参数化建模59-64
        4.4.1 链条轨迹的确定59-60
        4.4.2 链条的整体建模60-62
        4.4.3 链条模型的调用62-63
        4.4.4 链条的虚拟装配63-64
    4.5 本章小结64-65
第五章 蔬菜钵苗移栽机移栽机构的数字化设计65-77
    5.1 UGOPEN 和VB.net 概述65-66
        5.1.1 UGOPEN 概述65
        5.1.2 VB.net 软件概述65-66
    5.2 移栽机构数学分析模型的建立66-67
    5.3 基于UG 对移栽机构的实体建模和虚拟装配67-68
    5.4 基于UGOPEN 和VB.net 的用户界面的定制68-71
        5.4.1 菜单界面的定制68-69
        5.4.2 接口函数的编写69
        5.4.3 用户界面的定制69-71
    5.5 基于ADAMS 对变形模型的仿真71-73
        5.5.1 凸轮主轴角速度的计算72
        5.5.2 变形模型的运动学仿真72-73
    5.6 模型装配图明细表的导出73-75
        5.6.1 零部件属性的添加73-75
        5.6.2 标准图框和明细表模板的定制75
    5.7 本章小结75-77
第六章 蔬菜钵苗移栽机移栽机构的试验研究77-80
    6.1 实验设备77
    6.2 蔬菜钵苗移栽机移栽机构总体方案的确定77-78
    6.3 试验台的搭建78
    6.4 性能试验78-79
    6.5 本章小结79-80
第七章 总结和展望80-82
    7.1 总结80
    7.2 工作展望80-82
参考文献82-86
致谢86-87
攻读学位期间获得的研究成果87
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