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静观万象——中国古典园林中的审美境界

Contemplating Anything-The Aesthetic Realm of Chinese Classical Gardens

作者: 专业:园林植物与观赏园艺 导师:裘鸿菲 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 华中农业大学

Keywords

Classical Garden, “Jungian”Theory, Aesthetic Mood Of Feeling, Aesthetic Mood Of Conception, Aesthetic Psychology

        “静观”是一种见景抒情、味理观道的审美思维方式,是中国传统艺术领域中高层次的审美境界,它所强调的是审美主体应该以一颗虚静澄澈的心灵去认识和理解这个世界。这种审美“静观”的思维映射在中国古典园林艺术的创作与欣赏中,提升了园林的文化内涵,丰富了园林的时空变换,深化了园林的意境层次。因此,对于审美“静观”理论在中国古典园林中的影响进行研究,可以从审美心理学的角度补充和拓展中国古典园林美学的研究内容,进而启发现代人对于中国古典园林的重新审视,因此具有很高的理论意义和现实指导意义。论文首先对审美“静观”理论的概念进行了明晰,指出了它的逻辑结构关系、特征以及哲学缘起,追溯了它的历史发展脉络;其次,论文对中国古典园林意境美的构成条件进行了探讨,指出了“虚静”心境是审美“静观”活动的心理基础,并根据审美主体的心理结构的不同将园林之美分为成了三个层次,即:景物美、情感美和意境美;然后,对于人们在“虚静”心境下的审美“观照”进行了分析总结,将“观”分成了“外观”和“内观”两个部分,将“照”则分为“照情”、“照理”、“融情入景,情理交融”三个方面;最后,文章从园林的相地立意、布局理法以及园林各景物中所暗含的品质特征等几个方面着手,对于中国古典园林中有利于“虚静”心境诞生的景物空间类型及其营造方式进行了归纳总结,以期为现代园林提供一定的借鉴与启迪。
    "Jingguan" theory is a philosophical and aesthetic way of thinking when lyrically seeing the scenery and contemplating the philosophy, which is a traditional Chinese art in the aesthetic area of high-level, it should be emphasized that the aesthetic subjects realize and understand the world with a clarity mind of "Xujing" theory. This aesthetic contemplation of "Jingguan" maps in the creation and appreciation of art in Chinese classical garden, which raises the cultural connotations, enriches space transformation and deepens the mood level of landscape. Therefore, the study of psychology from the aesthetic point of view with the aesthetic contemplation of "Jingguang" theory influencing Chinese classical gardens so as to complete and expand the study of Chinese classical garden aesthetic content, which inspires people today for the re-examination of Chinese classical gardens, has a high theoretical and practical guides.Firstly this paper defines a clear concept of the aesthetic contemplation of "Jingguan" theory, pointing out its logic structure relationships,features and origins of philosophy, tracing its historical development, while the oriental and western ideas of beauty are compared; Secondly, this thesis has discussion on the composition conditions of aesthetic mood of conception in Chinese classical gardens, pointing out that the "Xujing" state of mind is the psychological basis of the aesthetic contemplation activities, and according to the main psychological structure difference of aesthetic subjects,dividing the beauty of garden into three levels:scenery beauty,emotion beauty and aesthetic mood of conception beauty; Then analyzing and summarizing the theory of "Guan Zhao" in the conditions of the aesthetic state of mind of "Xujing" theory of people, dividing"Guan" into two parts of the "outside view" and "inside view", the "Zhao" into three aspects of "See the emotional", "Found in philosophy","Landscape and the philosophy of emotion and blending with each other"; Finally, this article beginning with several aspects of site seeing conception, ways of layout,and quality characteristics of implicit in the landscape garden, generalizes and summarizes the landscape space types and building methods in favor the born of state of mind of "Xujing" theory for the Chinese classical gardens, which expects to provide a reference and inspiration for the modern landscape.
        

静观万象——中国古典园林中的审美境界

中文摘要8-9
ABSTRACT9
1 绪论10-17
    1.1 研究背景10-11
        1.1.1 审美"静观"理论对中国古典园林影响深远10
        1.1.2 传统中国古典园林的美学著述中鲜见关于审美"静观"理论的研究10-11
        1.1.3 审美心理学为中国古典园林美学的研究提供了新的切入点11
    1.2 国内外相关理论研究11-13
        1.2.1 国外相关理论研究11-12
        1.2.2 国内相关理论研究12-13
    1.3 研究的范围和对象13
    1.4 研究的目的及意义13-14
    1.5 研究方法14
        1.5.1 理论文献研究法14
        1.5.2 实地调查分析法14
        1.5.3 交叉学科研究法14
        1.5.4 归纳演绎法14
    1.6 论文研究内容14-16
    1.7 论文研究框架16-17
2 审美"静观"论概述17-32
    2.1 审美"静观"论的概念阐释17-21
        2.1.1 虚静17-20
            2.1.1.1 虚18-20
            2.1.1.2 静20
        2.1.2 观照20-21
            2.1.2.1 观20-21
            2.1.2.2 照21
    2.2 审美"静观"的特征21-22
        2.2.1 非功力性21-22
        2.2.2 以静制动22
    2.3 审美"静观"理论的历史发展脉络22-26
        2.3.1 殷周秦汉时期22-23
        2.3.2. 魏晋南北朝至隋唐时期23-24
        2.3.3. 唐宋时期24-25
        2.3.4. 明清时期25-26
    2.4 审美"静观"的哲学缘起26-29
        2.4.1 中国传统的"天人合一"思想对于审美"静观"论的影响27
        2.4.2 道学27-28
        2.4.3 儒学28-29
        2.4.4 佛学29
    2.5 传统诗画理论中的审美"静观"思想对中国古典园林的影响29-32
        2.5.1 诗理30-31
        2.5.2 画论31-32
3 中国古典园林美的层次和意境美的形成条件32-36
    3.1 审美心理结构与中国古典园林美的层次32-34
        3.1.1 景物美32
        3.1.2 情感美32-33
        3.1.3 意境美33-34
    3.2 中国古典园林意境美的形成条件34-36
        3.2.1 园林意境美的接受心境34
        3.2.2 客观的物象空间34-35
        3.2.3 审美主体的文化积淀35-36
4 静观万象,意写心源36-49
    4.1 "仰观俯察"、"远近游目"之"观"36-45
        4.1.1 外观36-45
            4.1.1.1 游目36-38
            4.1.1.2 耳闻38-41
            4.1.1.3 馥鼻41-43
            4.1.1.4 体触43-44
            4.1.1.5 舌味44-45
            4.1.1.6 通感45
    4.2 "物我交融"、"天人合一"之"照"45-49
        4.2.1 照情45-46
        4.2.2 照理46-47
        4.2.3 融情入景 情理交融47-49
5 "致虚极,守静笃"——审美心灵与园林环境的营造49-70
    5.1 相地合宜50-51
        5.1.1 借景50-51
        5.1.2 隔尘51
    5.2 意在笔先51-55
        5.2.1 静观之心51-52
        5.2.2 归隐之心52-53
        5.2.3 古意之心53
        5.2.4 素朴之心53-54
        5.2.5 简淡之心54-55
    5.3 布局有方55-57
        5.3.1 景区划分55-56
        5.3.2 亏蔽景深56-57
        5.3.3 曲径通幽57
    5.4 物质性构建57-64
        5.4.1 山水58-60
            5.4.1.1 山令人静58
            5.4.1.2 水涤尘襟 天鉴修神58-60
        5.4.2 动植物60-62
            5.4.2.1 莲令人洁60-61
            5.4.2.2 竹解虚心61
            5.4.2.3 "鱼"文化的审美心理积淀61-62
        5.4.3 园林构筑物62-64
            5.4.3.1 亭纳虚涵62-63
            5.4.3.2 窗含西岭63-64
    5.5 精神性构建64-70
        5.5.1 以文写心64-67
            5.5.1.1 匾题65-66
            5.5.1.2 楹联66
            5.5.1.3 刻石、砖额66-67
        5.5.2 文艺活动的审美导向67-70
            5.5.2.1 琴67-68
            5.5.2.2 棋68
            5.5.2.3 书68-69
            5.5.2.4 画69-70
6 结语70-71
参考文献71-75
图片索引75-79
致谢79
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