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武汉市典型城市湖泊湿地植物群落生物量研究

Study on Plant Community Biomass of Typical Urban Lake Wetland in Wuhan

作者: 专业:园林植物与观赏园艺 导师:周志翔 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 华中农业大学

Keywords

wetland, plant communities, biomass, carbon fixation and oxygen release

        本文在武汉市中心城区9个典型城市湖泊湿地植物物种、群落类型及生物量调查的基础上,分析了主要湿地植被类型及分布规律,城市湿地植物生物量及其影响因素,探讨了武汉市中心城区湖泊湿地的固碳释氧的生态服务价值。以期对湿地生态资产的定量测算及湿地生态系统的生态价位划分提供参考,为进一步研究湿地生态系统的生物生产力、营养物质循环及能量流动提供基础数据,为城市湿地的规划建设及湿地植物的保护和恢复工作提供理论依据。主要研究结果如下:1、武汉市中心城区9个典型城市湖泊湿地共有植物297种,分属于99科232属。按生活型分:乔木植物有79种,分属38科65属;灌木植物有43种,分属28科36属;草本植物有96种,分属33科85属;藤本植物19种,分属10科13属;水生植物60种,分属24科45属,其中,挺水植物40种,分属13科36属,浮水植物9种7科8属,沉水植物11种5科7属。其中乔木植物中杨柳科(Salicaceae)、松科(Pinaceae)为优势种;灌木植物蔷薇科(Rosaceae)为优势种;草本植物中禾本科(Gramineae)、莎草科(Cyperaceae)、豆科(Leguminosae)菊科(Compositae)为优势种;水生植物中蓼科(Polygonaceae)、睡莲科(Nymphaeaceae)等为优势科,且各科在属水平上则分布较分散。2、武汉市中心城区9个典型城市湖泊湿地群落类型包括木本沼泽、草丛、挺水植被、浮水植被和沉水植被5个植被型,含27个群系,50个群丛。木本沼泽的植被类型在各湖泊基本都有分布,草丛沼泽伴生林下,和挺水植物一起连接湖泊驳岸,向湖泊水域延伸为浮水植物及沉水植物,其中,樟树群系、松群系、构树群系、香蒲群系、莲群丛、芦苇群系、凤眼莲群系、喜旱莲子草群丛、狗牙根群丛和鹅观草群丛、苦草群系、狐尾藻群系等为武汉湖泊湿地中最常见的群丛类型。3、典型城市湖泊湿地缓冲带植被生物量的测定表明,半自然型湖泊东湖、月湖、竹叶海的单位面积生物量分别为1418.40、1373.50、694.70 g·m-2,平均为1262.60 g·m-2;自然型湖泊严东湖、野湖、三角湖的单位面积生物量分别为1068.33、1177.50、928.40 g·m-2,平均为1058.08 g·m2;人工湖泊紫阳湖、菱角湖、北湖的单位面积生物量分别为465.11、220.01、210.10 g·m-2,平均为298.41g·m-2。不同干扰类型湖泊缓冲带植被的单位面积生物量表现为半自然湖泊>自然湖泊>人工湖泊。4、典型城市湖泊水生植物生物量的测定结果显示,自然型湖泊严东湖、野湖、三角湖的单位面积生物量分别为147.24、151.62、204.24 g·m-2,平均为167.70g·m-2;半自然型湖泊东湖、月湖、竹叶海的单位面积生物量分别为5.73、107.18、68.83 g·m-2,平均为60.58 g·m-2;人工型湖泊紫阳湖、菱角湖、北湖单位面积生物量分别为17.79、7.11、13.59 g·m-2,平均为12.83 g·m-2。可见湖泊受到人为干扰程度越大,其水生植物单位面积生物量越小,即自然湖泊>半自然湖泊>人工湖泊。5、典型城市湖泊的植物总生物量与水域面积、湖岸线长度呈明显的正相关关系,不同类型湖泊总生物量的总体趋势是自然型湖泊>半自然型湖泊>人工湖泊,且人工型湖泊和半自然型湖泊缓冲带植物的生物量大都占总生物量的80%以上,而自然型湖泊缓冲带植物的生物量约占总生物量的50%。因此,要保证湖泊植被发挥最大的生态功能,人工型湖泊和半自然型湖泊应重点保护缓冲带植被,适当增加水生植被;自然型湖泊则应在缓冲带植被保护的同时重点保护湖泊的水域面积。6、对武汉典型湖泊湿地的利用价值分析:武汉市中心城区38个湖泊的涵养水源、调蓄服务的价值量为0.15×10。元;湿地植物固碳释氧价值现存量为379.61×104元,固碳释氧现存价值量中半自然湖泊贡献最高,其次为自然湖泊,人工湖泊最低,分别占总价值的71.10%、28.64%、0.26%。7、武汉市中心城区38个典型城市湖泊湿地分属于6个区域(洪山区、武昌区、汉阳区、研口区、江岸区、江汉区),其中,洪山区水域面积占中心城区38个湖泊的89.20%,固碳释氧价值量占总价值量的83.2%;其次是汉阳区,占总固碳释氧价值量的14.83%,研口区占总固碳释氧价值量的1.04%,江岸区、武昌区、江汉区占总固碳释氧价值量都在1%以下。
    Based on the investigation of plant species,community types and biomass of nine typical urban lake wetland of central district in wuhan,vegetation types and its regularities of distribution of main wetland as well as plant biomass and its influence factor of urban wetland were analyzed,therefore ecosystem services value in regard to carbon fixation and oxygen release of lake wetland of central district in wuhan were discussed. To provide reference for quantitative measurement of wetland ecological assets and wetland ecosystem,to offer basic data for research on biological productivity,nutrient cycling and energy flow of wetland ecosystem,and to provide the foundation for urban wetland planning and construction as well as wetland plant protection and recovery.The major findings were as follows:1.Urban lake wetland in wuhan were rich in 297 species of plants belonging to 99 families,232 genera.Classified by life form:97 species were arbors belonging to 38 families,65 genera;43 species were Shrubs belonging to 28 families,36 genera;96 species were herbaceous plants belonging to 33 families,85 genera;19 species were vines belonging to 10 families,13 genera;60 species were aquatic plantsbelonging to 24 families,45 genera that included 40 emergent plants belonging to 36 genera and 13 families,9 floating plants belonging to 8 genera and 7 families,11 submersed plants belonging to 7 genera and 5 families.Dominant species of arbor were Salicaceae and Pinaceae;dominant species of shrub was Rosaceae;dominant species of herbaceous plant were Gramineae,Cyperaceae,Leguminosae and Compositae;dominant families of hygrophyte plant were Polygonaceae,Nymphaeaceae etc,and each families spread scattered in genera lever.2.Coenotype of 9 typical urban lake wetland of central district in wuhan included 5 vegetation types which were woody swamp,tussock,emergent vegetation,floating vegetation and submersed vegetation,containing 50 associations and 27 formations.Woody swamp vegetation types were distributed in each lakes, just like in the grass,marsh and associated forest, furthermore,together with the emergent plants adjoined to the lakeshore, extending as floating plants and submerged plants to the lake waters. Among them, the most common associations of lake wetland in wuhan were camphor tree formation, loose formation, structure tree formation, Typha formation,lotus association,reed formations,formation water hyacinth, A.philoxeroides association,Bermudagrass and Roegneria Ass Ass,bitter grass formations, Myriophyllum formations and so on.3.Determination results of vegetation biomass of the typical urban lake wetland buffer showed:per unit area biomass of semi-natural lakes,Dong Lake.Yue Lake and Zhuye sea, were 1418.40.1373.50.694.70 g·m-2, an average of 1262.60 g·m-2;per unit area biomass of natural lakes,strict Yandong Lake.Ye Lake and Sanjiao Lake, were 1068.33.1177.50.928.40 g·m-2, an average of 1058.08 g·m-2;per unit area biomass of artificial lakes, Ziyang Lake, Lingjiao Lake and Bei Lake, were 465.11、220.01.210.10g·m-2, an average of 298.41 g·m-2.In diffirent disturbance types, per unit area biomass of Lake buffer vegetation showed:semi-natural lakes> natural lakes> artificial lakes.4.Determination results of aquatic plants biomass of typical urban lakes showed: per unit area biomass of Natural lakes, Yandong Lake、Ye Lake and Sanjiao Lake, were 147.24.151.62.204.24 g·m-2, an average of 167.70 g·m-2;per unit area biomass of semi-natural lakes,Dong Lake.Yue Lake and Zhuye Lake,were 5.73. 107.18.68.83 g·m-2, an average of 60.58 g·m-2;per unit area biomass of artificial lakes,Ziyang Lake.Lingjiao Lake and Bei Lake, were 17.79.7.11.13.59 g·m-2, an average of 12.83 g·m-2. The greater of human disturbance degrees, the smaller of per unit area biomass of aquatic plants, in other words, natural lakes> semi-natural lakes> artificial lakes.5.There was a significant positive correlation among total plant biomass,water area and shoreline length of the typical urban lakes,the overall trend of total biomass of different lake types:natural type lakes> semi-natural lakes> artificial lakes,furthermore plants biomass of artificial lakes and semi-natural lakes buffers accounting for more than 80% of the total biomass,however,biomass of natural lakes has a proportion of about 50%. Therefore, to ensure maximising ecological functions of lake vegetation, for artificial lakes and semi-natural lakes,buffer vegetation should be protected and aquatic vegetation should be appropriately increased;but for natural lakes,buffer vegetation as well as lake water area should be protected at the same time.6.Results for analysing utility values of typical lake wetland in Wuhan:amount of value of water conservation and storage services of 38 lakes in central district of Wuhan were 0.15×108 yuan; the existing amount of value of carbon fixation and oxygen release were 379.61×104 yuan,semi-natural lakes had the highest contribution,followed by natural lakes,and artificial lakes were the lowest, respectively, accounting for 71.10%,28.64% and 0.26% of the total biomass.7.The typical 38 wetland lakes of the central district in Wuhan belonging to six different regions (Hongshan District,Wuchang District,Hanyang District,Qiaokou, riverbank area, Jianghan District), which, Hongshan District has the largest the water area and carbon sequestration and oxygen release Value of respectively 89.20%,83.2%;followed by the Hanyang District, has the proportion of carbon sequestration and oxygen release Value of 14.83%,while Qiaokou has only 1.04% of total fixed carbon and releasing oxygen value, the District of riverbank, Wuchang, and Jianghan Value of total fixed carbon and releasing oxygen are all below 1%.
        

武汉市典型城市湖泊湿地植物群落生物量研究

摘要6-8
ABSTRACT8-10
1 前言11-19
    1.1 研究目的与意义11-12
    1.2 文献综述12-17
        1.2.1 湿地研究进展12-14
        1.2.2 城市湿地研究进展14-15
        1.2.3 生物量研究进展15-17
    1.3 主要研究内容17-19
2. 研究地点与研究方法19-25
    2.1 研究区概况19-20
        2.1.1 武汉市概况19
        2.1.2 武汉市城市湿地现状19-20
    2.2 研究方法20-25
        2.2.1 研究地点选择20
        2.2.2 遥感影像选择、处理、调查样地及范围确定20-21
        2.2.3 环湖岸线湿地植被生物量测算21-22
        2.2.4 湖泊水生植被生物量测量22-24
        2.2.5 实测数据处理24-25
3 结果与分析25-53
    3.1 武汉典型城市湖泊湿地植物群落组成及类型25-42
        3.1.1 武汉典型城市湖泊湿地植物群落组成及生活型分析25-29
        3.1.2 武汉典型湖泊湿地植物群落类型分析29-42
    3.2 武汉典型城市湖泊湿地生物量分析42-45
        3.2.1 武汉典型城市湖泊湿地单位面积生物量分析42-43
        3.2.2 武汉市湖泊湿地总生物量分析43-45
    3.3 武汉市典型湖泊湿地固碳释氧功能分析45-53
        3.3.1 实测典型湖泊水生植被固碳释氧物质量及价值量45-46
        3.3.2 实测典型湖泊环湖岸线植被现存固碳释氧物质量及价值量46-47
        3.3.3 武汉市中心城区湖泊湿地植被固碳释氧价值量分析47-53
4 结论与讨论53-63
    4.1 研究结论53-57
    4.2 讨论与建议57-63
        4.2.1 对武汉典型湖泊湿地植被群落的研究指导建议57-60
        4.2.2 对武汉典型湖泊湿地植被生物量研究的指导建议60-63
参考文献63-68
附表68-83
致谢83
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