首页 > 硕士 > 农学 > 正文

基质与营养液对春石斛生长发育的影响

Effect of Media and Nutrient Solutions on the Growth and Development of Nobile-type Dendrobium

作者: 专业:园林植物与观赏园艺 导师:王彩云 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 华中农业大学

Keywords

Sphagna, Coconut waste, Ammonium nitrogen, Nitrate nitrogen, Hydroponic, Nutrient Deficiency

        春石斛作为一种新兴年宵花卉,市场潜力大。目前水苔是春石斛的主要栽培基质,但是水苔在采集的过程中会对环境造成破坏,且成本较高。本研究采用形态特征结合生理指标的方法,通过比较以工农业生产的废弃物为原料得到的基质和不同N,P,K比例与氮形态的营养液对不同年龄、不同品种的春石斛生长发育的影响,筛选出了比较合适的水苔替代品。同时,探讨了基质与营养液影响春石斛生长发育的机理,为基质无土栽培中的合理施肥提供依据。主要结论如下:(1)春石斛品种特征指标评价体系对于不同品种的春石斛,总花量、花径、冠幅、单假鳞茎上的叶片数、花色、假鳞茎粗6个指标可以反映基本品种特征;对于同一品种的不同植株,总花量、花径、冠幅、单假鳞茎上的叶片数、分枝数与花开整齐度6个指标可以反映植株基本特征。(2)基质与营养液对春石斛生长发育的影响几种不同基质与营养液的对比试验表明,以水苔为基质的植株营养生长旺盛,椰糠:树皮:珍珠岩=2:1:1的配比下生长的植株,虽然营养生长略差于水苔,但花量与整齐度明显高于水苔。综合基质成本因素,椰糠:树皮:珍珠岩=2:1:1的混合基质是水苔较好的替代品。植株在Hoagland和Snyder (1933)通用营养液(N1)下营养生长旺盛,但开花时花量少,花径小;在减少施氮量,增大P,K比例与施用量的蝴蝶兰营养液(N2)配方下,假鳞茎最粗,花期品质最好,但植株光合效率低,生物量少,更新状态较差,营养生长状态最差;在提高N、P、K施用量与P、K的相对比例的高铵态氮的营养液(N3)中,6月15日前高度增加,节数增多的速率最快,但6月15日到7月25日间几乎停滞,成活率最低,花径最小,花量最少,开花整齐度不高;在保持P的施用量不变,提高N与K施用量的营养液(N4)中,植株较高,地上地下干重均较大,花径最大,整齐度高,花量略低于N2。(3)不同氮形态对春石斛生长的影响在以水苔为基质的试验中,随着铵态氮浓度的增加,早春植株表现出良好的生长性状。在高铵态氮(75:25)与全铵态氮(100:0)处理下的植株萌芽早,叶绿素含量高,根系活力大,植株高,节数多,生物量多;在低铵态氮(25:75与50:50)中植株生长最差。在不同施用量下,植株形态方面无明显差异,但施用量较高的植株体内叶绿素含量高,根系活力大,单位质量的可溶性糖含量低。春石斛既有C3植物的特性,又有兼性CAM植物的性质,低温时,随着铵态氮比例的增加,植株进入景天酸代谢途径,光合速率未受影响。综合基质与营养液中二年生植株的动态生长可知,在铵态氮的使用时应避开高温期,6月15日后最好停用。(4)缺素处理下的春石斛生长发育表现植株在缺氮时叶面积小,叶片黄,光合作用能力差,且落叶严重,但有利于植株根系对K、P的吸收,假鳞茎与叶片中积累了大量的P、K,从而促进了植株的开花。缺P时,植株休止叶出现晚,出现疯长现象,假鳞茎又细又高,但可能植株对磷整体需求较少,部分植株亦有开花现象。缺K对植株的影响主要表现在生长发育的晚期,老叶叶片的叶尖黄化坏死,植株高增长与假鳞茎增粗受到抑制,不能开花。缺Ca植株反映明显,早期新芽腐烂,在处理一年后,成活率最低,干重最小。本试验未发现缺Mg对春石斛生长发育的影响。(5) N是影响植株营养生长最重要的因素,通过影响植株的光合作用实现;P与K是影响春石斛花期品质的主要因素。在施用量为8d 10ml、8d 30ml的前提下,N的施用浓度为15mol/L, P的施用浓度为2.5mol/L,K的施用浓度为6.5mol/L时有助于二年生与四年生植株的生长发育。
    Nobile-type Dendrobium is a newly-arised potted flower with a large market potential. Sphagna is the main medium for Nobile-type Dendrobium, but is costly and leads to environmental damage during the acquisition process. In this study, the growth and development of Nobile-type Dendrobium were compared using the morphological and physiological characteristics. The Nobile-type Dendrobium palnts were treated with different media and nutrient solutions of N, P, K ratios and N sources. The aim was to select a more appropriate alternative to sphagna. Also, the effect of the media and nutrient solutions is discussed. This will provide the basis for rational fertilization for the substrate-soilless culture. The main conclusions are as follows:(1) Evaluation System on the Varieties Index of Nobile-type Dendrobium:Six indexes can be used to characterize the flower.1 total flower numbers; 2 flower diameter; 3crown width; 41eaf numbers on one Pseudobulb; 5color; 6 pseudobulb diameter that can be used for evaluating different varieties. And For the same varieties, the former forth is the same with two different indexes:branches number and flowers’uniformity.(2) Effect of Media and Nutrient Solutions on the Growth and Development of Nobile-type Dendrobium The result of some media and nutrient solutions’effect on the growth and development of Nobile-type Dendrobium showed that:Sphagna had significant effect on the plants’vegetative growth than on the flowering. The plant takes a significantly higher quantity and uniform flower planted in medium coco peat:bark: perlite= 2:1:1, though its vegetative growth is weaker than sphagna. Comprehensive media’s cost factors, the medium coco waste:bark:perlite=2:1:1 may be a good substitute for sphagna.Plants’vegetative growth was vigorous under the Hoagland and Snyder’s solution (1933) (N1), but it resulted in less flowers and smaller diameter. The new-bulbils’growth was not good in the Phalaenopsis solution (N2) whose nitrate was reduced and the P, K ratios increased; however, the flowering quality was best. The survival rate of the plants growin in the nutrient solution (N3) with higher P, K ratio and application had smallest flower diameter and lower flowering uniformity. The plants treated with (N4) nutrient solution which increased the N and K application and P’s maintained were taller with largest diameter. The plants treated with N4 showed better vegetative and flowering performance when N, P, K ratio was15:2.68:7.07and the amount of application was 17:1:7.(3) Effect of Different Nitrogen on the Growth of Nobile-type Dendrobium:As the NH4+—N ratio increased, the plants planted on the sphagna medium showed good morphological growth characteristics in the early spring. In high ammonium (75:25) and the total ammonium nitrogen (100:0) treatment, the plants grew well and had higher chlorophyll content, larger root activity, taller plant height, more node number and biomass. And the plants had slow growth in ammonium N (25:75 and 50:50). No significant differences were found in plant morphology under different fertilizer application amounts but the chlorophyll content in the plants increased, root activity and the soluble sugar content reduced with increasing amounts of application. Nobile-type Dendrobium is a C3 plant and with the nature of CAM plants. With the increasing of NH4+—N, the photosynthetic rate was not affected at low temperature. Ammonium application should be avoided at high temperature period (from June 15)(4) Effect of Nutrient Deficiency on the Growth and Development of Nobile-type Dendrobium:The Plants’small leaf area, yellow leaves were due to N deficient which was beneficial to plant roots aborsing K, P, thus promoting flowering plants. Lack of P may cause late formation of leaves, thin and high pseudobulb. Lack of K is mainly affected in the tip necrosis of old yellow leaves, the plants cannot bloom. The plants showed significant early necrotic new bulbils in the absence of Ca:it had the lowest survival rate and least dry weight. In this study, no significant growth and development of Nobile-type was noticed in plants lacking Mg.(5) Nitrogen was the most important element for plant growth because it had effect on the plants photosynthesis; P and K affected the quality of the spring flowering of Dendrobium. The concentrations of N:15mol/L, P:2.5mol/L and, K:6.5mol/L applied in the 8d at a rate of 10ml and30ml caused normal growth and development.in the biennial and the four-year old plants.
        

基质与营养液对春石斛生长发育的影响

摘要8-10
Abstract10-11
主要符号及缩略语表12-13
1 前言13-22
    1.1 概述13
    1.2 无土栽培基质与营养液的研究进展13-16
        1.2.1 栽培基质的种类13-14
        1.2.2 栽培基质的研究方法14-15
        1.2.3 无土栽培基质结合营养液的研究进展15
        1.2.4 经济环保型基质与新型营养液的研究15-16
    1.3 石解兰栽培基质与营养液研究进展16-20
        1.3.1 石解兰无土栽培基质研究进展16-17
        1.3.2 春石解无土栽培营养液研究进展17-20
    1.4 本研究的目的与意义20-21
    1.5 技术路线21-22
2 不同品种春石解花期性状的评价体系22-54
    2.1 材料与方法23-26
        2.1.1 试验材料23
        2.1.2 试验设施及环境条件23
        2.1.3 指标的测定方法23-26
    2.2 结果与分析26-52
        2.2.1 不同品种春石解花期性状的差异分析26-35
        2.2.2 不同品种春石解花期性状指标间的相关性35-36
        2.2.3 不同品种春石解花期性状体系的建立36-38
        2.2.4 同一品种不同植株间花期性状的差异分析38-46
        2.2.5 同一品种不同植株花期性状指标间的相关性分析46-47
        2.2.6 同一品种不同植株春石解花期性状评价方程的建立47-50
        2.2.7 不同品种与同一品种不同植株的等级划分50-52
    2.3 小结52-54
3 基质与营养液对春石解生长发育的影响54-117
    3.1 材料与方法54-61
        3.1.1 试验材料54-56
        3.1.2 试验设计56-57
        3.1.3 试验设施及环境条件57-58
        3.1.4 指标测定方法58-61
        3.1.5 数据处理61
    3.2 结果与分析61-110
        3.2.1 不同处理对二年生植株营养生长的影响61-72
        3.2.2 二年生春石解营养生长受基质与营养液影响的动态变化72-75
        3.2.3 不同处理对春石解开花植株的影响75-87
        3.2.4 不同处理对植株生物量、体内矿质元素积累与转移的影响87-105
        3.2.5 基质与营养液的理化性质105-110
    3.3 小结110-117
        3.3.1 营养液与基质对不同品种春石解生长发育的影响110-112
        3.3.2 营养液与基质影响植株生长发育的时间的探讨112
        3.3.3 营养液与基质对植株生物量、体内矿质元素积累与转移的影响112-114
        3.3.4 营养液与基质的理化性质114
        3.3.5 营养液与基质影响春石解植株生长发育的机制探讨114-117
4 不同氮形态营养液对春石解营养生长的影响117-131
    4.1 材料与方法117-119
        4.1.1 试验材料117
        4.1.2 试验设计117
        4.1.3 指标测定方法117-119
    4.2 结果与分析119-128
        4.2.1 不同氮形态的营养液对春石解营养生长的影响119-121
        4.2.2 不同氮形态的营养液对春石解生物量的影响121-122
        4.2.3 不同氮形态的营养液对春石解生理指标的影响122-125
        4.2.4 不同氮形态营养液处理的春石解的光合特性125-128
    4.3 小结128-131
5 缺素处理对春石解生长发育的影响131-146
    5.1 材料与方法131-133
        5.1.1 试验材料131
        5.1.2 试验设计131-132
        5.1.3 试验设施与环境条件132-133
        5.1.4 指标测定方法133
    5.2 结果与分析133-143
        5.2.1 缺素对春石解营养生长形态的影响133-135
        5.2.2 缺素对春石解开花的影响135-136
        5.2.3 缺素对春石解干重的影响136-137
        5.2.4 缺素处理下植株的早期形态与生理反应137-140
        5.2.5 缺素对春石解体内矿质元素分布的影响140-143
    5.3 小结143-146
6 结论与讨论146-150
    6.1 不同品种春石解花期性状评价146
    6.2 基质与营养液对春石解生长发育的影响146-147
    6.3 不同形态氮对春石解生长发育的影响147-148
    6.4 缺素处理对春石解生长发育的影响148
    6.5 基质与营养液对春石解生长发育的综合影响机制148-150
参考文献150-161
致谢161-162
附录162-164
获得成果目录清单164
        下载全文需50


本文地址:

上一篇:肉桂醛衍生物的合成及生物活性研究
下一篇:棉花油后直播合理密度研究

分享到: 分享基质与营养液对春石斛生长发育的影响到腾讯微博           收藏
评论排行
公告