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发展农业循环经济与消解规模化养猪环境污染研究

—— 以武汉市城郊为例
Study on the Developing Agricultural Circular Economic and Digesting Large Pig Farming Environmental Pollution

作者: 专业:农业经济管理 导师:王宇波 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 华中农业大学

Keywords

Large-scale pig farming, Pollution, Agricultural economy, Gas projects, Carrying capacity, Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation

        据农业部统计,截至2008年底,我国规模化养猪出栏数量所占比率已达到62%,规模化已经成为今后养猪业发展的趋势。规模化养猪的蓬勃发展为消费者提供了丰富的肉产品,对于保障猪肉市场的稳定、满足人们日益增长的消费需求,促进农民就业,带动农民增收和加快农业结构调整起到了重要的作用。但规模化养猪在取得显著效益的同时,也造成了严重的环境污染,并且随着城市化进程的加快,部分猪场已与城市连为一体,更加剧了城市生态环境的恶化,使得规模化养猪与城市发展之间的矛盾愈加尖锐,粪污围城和城市发展定期驱赶养猪场的现象十分普遍,规模化养猪产业的持续健康发展受到挑战。循环经济思想为缓解规模化养猪环境污染,实现规模化养猪产业的持续健康发展开辟了新的途径。本文以武汉市建设“两型社会”为背景,深入分析武汉市规模化养猪产业发展情况与面临的问题,以武汉银河生态农业公司发展农业循环经济的模式为案例,提出推动武汉市规模化养猪产业发展农业循环经济的措施建议,这对促进规模化养猪产业与资源环境协调发展,具有重要的现实意义。本文在内容体系上共分为七部分:第一部分,文章描述了我国养猪业的规模化发展趋势和环境污染形势,以及国内外对此问题的研究现状,并提出论文的研究内容、技术路线和创新点;第二部分,文章系统阐述了本文研究的理论基础—农业循环经济理论,并列举了农业循环经济理论在规模化养猪产业中的实践情况;第三部分,文章对武汉市规模化养猪产业的总体发展、粪便资源化利用和环境污染情况做了详细分析,列举了武汉市规模化养猪产业发展中遇到的问题,并进一步论述了武汉市“两型社会”建设与规模化养猪产业发展之间的关系,分析了在建设“两型社会”背景下,武汉市规模化养猪产业面临新的挑战和机遇;第四部分,关于规模化养猪环境污染的实证分析。根据环境承载力理论,文章选取农田、水面和沼气工程三项指标,对所调查的29家规模化猪场的环境承载力进行实证检验,以检测武汉市规模化养猪产业的环境污染风险,寻找解决猪场环境污染问题的技术途径;第五部分,案例分析。武汉银河生态农业有限公司在农业循环经济方面取得了显著的成效,较好的体现了“两型社会”的建设要求。文章选择银河公司作为案例,介绍了该公司发展农业循环经济所采取的措施,并对其效益水平予以分析。为进一步验证银河公司农业循环经济发展水平,文章采用模糊层次综合评价法对银河公司的农业循环经济发展水平进行了测度;第六部分,措施与建议。文章根据武汉市规模化养猪产业发展的实际情况,结合建设“两型社会”的要求,借鉴武汉市银河生态农业有限公司所采取的发展农业循环经济的措施,提出推进武汉市规模化养猪产业发展农业循环经济的措施建议;第七部分,结论与展望。总结全文的结论,并对进一步的研究提出展望。
    According to the Ministry of Agriculture statistics, as the end of 2008, the number of large-scale pig slaughter accounts for the total has reached 62%. Large-scale has become the trend of swine industry in the future. With the rapid development, the large-scale pig farming have provided consumers with a lots meat products, which have played an important role in protecting the stability of pork market, satisfying the consumers’growing demand, promoting employment opportunities for farmers, increasing the farmers’income, and accelerating the adjustment of agricultural structure. Large-scale pig farming have also caused serious environmental pollution, although it have achieved significant benefits, and with the accelerating process of urbanization, some pig farms have been connected with the city as a whole, which has aggravated the deterioration of urban ecological environment, making the conflicts even more acute between large-scale pig farming and urban development, the phenomenon that manure siege and pig farms regularly been driven by urban-development is widespread. The sustained and healthy development of large-scale pig farming have been challenged. The thought of circular economic opens up new avenues to alleviate the large-scale pig farming pollution, and achieve sustained and healthy development of large-scale pig farming industry. In the context of "Resource-economical and Environment-friendly Society" in Wuhan, this paper in-depth analysis the development of scale pig farming industry, and makes a case ctudy about the agricultural circular economic model which been used by Ecological Agriculture Co., Ltd., Wuhan Yinhe, then promote some measures and proposals to advance the development of agricultural circular economic of the large-scale pig farming industry in Wuhan, which has important practical significance for promoting the coordinated development between large-scale pig farming industry and resources and environment.In this paper, the content system is divided into seven parts:The first part, the paper describes the large-scale trends and environmental situation of China’s Pig Industry, then elaborates the research status to the problem, and proposed thesis content, technology and innovation routes.The second part, the paper systematically expounded the theoretical basis of this study-agricultural circular economic theory, and cited the practical situation of agricultural circular economy in large pig industry.The third part, the paper made a detailed analysis about overall development, utilization of swine manure and environmental pollution of large pig industry in Wuhan, and listed whose development problems. Then the paper further discussed the relationship between the large pig industry’s development and the construction of "Resource-economical and Environment-friendly Society", and analysis the new challenges and opportunities which Wuhan large-scale pig farming industry are facing on the background of the construction of "society".The fourth part, a positive analysed of the pollution caused by large-scale pig farming. According to the environmental carrying capacity theory, this paper selected three indicators, which include farmland, water and gas engineering, and tested the environmental carrying capacity of 29 large-scale pig farms to detect the environmental risk large-scale pig farming industry in Wuhan, and find ways to solve the problem of environmental pollution.The fifth part, case study. Ecological Agriculture Co., Ltd., Wuhan Yinhe has made remarkable achievements in agricultural circular economy, which reflects the the building requirements of "Resource-economical and Environment-friendly Society". The paper choosed the Yinhe Corporation as a case, introduce the measures that adopted by Yinhe to develop agricultural circular economy, and analysis the benefit levels of it. In order to verify the circulating levels of economic development company further, the paper adopted fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to measure it.The sixth part, measures and proposal. The paper referencing the measures taken by Yinhe and combining the requirement of "Resource-economical and Environment-friendly Society", proposed the measures and proposal to promote the development of agricultural circular economy in the large-scale pig farming industry, according the actual situation of large-scale pig farming industry in Wuhan.The seventh part, conclusion and outlook. Summarized the conclusions of the full text, and prospected the further research.
        

发展农业循环经济与消解规模化养猪环境污染研究

摘要10-12
ABSTRACT12-13
1 导言14-24
    1.1 研究背景14-15
    1.2 选题目的与意义15
    1.3 国内外研究现状15-21
        1.3.1 相关概念的界定15-16
        1.3.2 规模化养猪的环境污染问题16-17
        1.3.3 规模化养猪环境污染的原因分析17-19
        1.3.4 规模化养猪环境污染防治对策19-20
        1.3.5 国内外研究述评20-21
    1.4 研究内容与技术路线21-22
        1.4.1 研究内容21
        1.4.2 技术路线21-22
    1.5 主要研究方法22-23
    1.6 可能的创新点23-24
2 农业循环经济理论与规模化养猪产业的发展24-32
    2.1 农业循环经济内涵与原则24-25
        2.1.1 农业循环经济的内涵24
        2.1.2 农业循环经济的原则24-25
    2.2 农业循环经济的发展层次25
        2.2.1 农产品生产层次25
        2.2.2 农业产业层次25
        2.2.3 农产品消费过程层次25
    2.3 农业循环经济的理论基础25-27
        2.3.1 循环经济理论25-26
        2.3.2 农业可持续发展理论26-27
        2.3.3 农业生态学理论27
    2.4 国内外农业循环经济研究进展27-28
    2.5 农业循环经济在规模化养猪产业中的运用28-32
        2.5.1 "猪-沼-作物"模式29
        2.5.2 "生物垫料有机肥养殖"模式29-30
        2.5.3 "猪-沼-电"模式30-32
3 武汉市规模化养猪发展现状32-41
    3.1 规模化养猪发展情况32-34
        3.1.1 规模化水平较高32
        3.1.2 民营企业为主,经营管理较为规范32
        3.1.3 人员结构较为合理,带动农民增收作用显著32-33
        3.1.4 沼气推广初见成效33
        3.1.5 畜产品质量较高33
        3.1.6 存在多样化经营现象33-34
    3.2 规模化猪场粪便资源化利用现状34-36
        3.2.1 粪便资源化利用的方向34
        3.2.2 粪便资源化利用的方式34-35
        3.2.3 现有的粪便处理方式对粪便的消化能力有限35-36
    3.3 规模化养猪面临的问题36-38
        3.3.1 环境污染形势严峻36-37
        3.3.2 大部分猪场融资困难37
        3.3.3 实现种养结合难度大37
        3.3.4 大中型沼气工程推广阻力较大37-38
        3.3.5 环境监管不规范,治污力度不够38
        3.3.6 政府补贴急需落实38
    3.4 "两型社会"建设与规模化养猪产业的发展38-41
        3.4.1 "两型社会"的内涵38-39
        3.4.2 "两型社会"建设与规模化养猪发展产业的关系39
        3.4.3 武汉市规模化养猪面临的挑战与机遇39-41
4 武汉市规模化猪场环境承载力分析41-51
    4.1 猪场环境承载力的内涵41
        4.1.1 环境承载力的内涵41
        4.1.2 猪场环境承载力的含义与影响因素41
    4.2 猪场环境承载力评价指标的选取41-44
        4.2.1 农田承载力41-43
        4.2.2 水面(鱼塘)承载力43
        4.2.3 沼气工程承载力43-44
    4.3 猪场环境承载力实证分析44-51
        4.3.1 基本假定与相关指标的界定44-46
        4.3.2 统计描述46-48
        4.3.3 分析结论48-51
5 "两型社会"背景下农业循环经济发展的新模式51-77
    5.1 武汉银河生态农业有限公司基本情况51-52
        5.1.1 地理位置与自然条件51
        5.1.2 公司基本情况51-52
    5.2 银河公司发展农业循环经济的实践52-56
        5.2.1 遵循的基本原则52-53
        5.2.2 采取的主要措施53-56
    5.3 银河公司农业循环经济效益评价56-61
        5.3.1 经济效益评价56-60
        5.3.2 生态效益评价60
        5.3.3 社会效益评价60-61
    5.4 银河公司农业循环经济发展水平评价61-77
        5.4.1 模糊层次综合评价方法简述61-65
        5.4.2 评价指标体系的构建65-68
        5.4.3 银河公司农业循环经济发展水平评价68-77
6 推进武汉市规模化猪场发展循环经济的措施与建议77-82
    6.1 强化规模化猪场的主体作用77-78
        6.1.1 以大中型沼气工程为纽带,构建农业循环经济园区77-78
        6.1.2 加强规模化猪场内部建设,适应农业循环经济发展的需要78
        6.1.3 增强规模化养猪企业的环保意识78
    6.2 大力营造良好的外部环境78-80
        6.2.1 科学规划,合理布局78-79
        6.2.2 规范环境监管工作,加强环境治理力度79
        6.2.3 建立健全政策支持体系79
        6.2.4 加大金融支持力度79-80
        6.3.5 完善科技创新体系80
    6.3 积极引导农民参与80-82
        6.3.1 加大农业循环经济的宣传力度80
        6.3.2 提高农民参与发展循环经济的素质80
        6.3.3 大力发展农业合作组织80-82
7 结论与展望82-84
    7.1 主要结论82-83
    7.2 研究展望83-84
参考文献84-87
附录87-103
    附录1 调查问卷—生猪养殖场87-93
    附录2 调查问卷—周边农户93-94
    附录3 调查问卷—关于银河公司循环经济发展水平的调查94-101
    附录4 关于模糊综合评价---决策矩阵R的专家调查101-102
    附录5 硕士期间发表论文102-103
致谢103
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