中国现代小说中的悲剧叙事研究

Study on the Tragedy Narration in the Chinese Modern Fiction

作者: 专业:中国现当代文学 导师:刘中树 年度:2009 学位:博士 

关键词
悲剧 观念 主题 个性化特征 《红楼梦》 修辞

Keywords
Tragedy, Concept, Motive, Personality characteristics, "A Dream of Red Mansions", Rhetoric
        本论文以中国现代小说中的悲剧文本为研究对象,以西方代表性的悲剧理论作为深化认识和阐释问题的手段与辅助工具,在已有研究成果的基础上,针对现代文学悲剧问题研究中的某些薄弱环节进行重点研究。在研究过程中,主要立足于中国现代小说悲剧叙事所处的生动复杂的文化与文学语境和创作主体的价值处境与时代体验。同时,注重整体论述与个案分析、纵向论析与横向剖析相结合,并将中国现代小说悲剧文本与中国古典悲剧和西方悲剧文本进行必要的对比分析。希望通过对中国现代小说创作主体的悲剧观念意识的生成与流变,中国现代小说悲剧叙事的类型化倾向,个性化特点,传统悲剧经典艺术因子的渗透、变异,以及文本修辞特征等问题的探讨,完善、发展中国现代文学悲剧问题的研究。
    As an important aesthetics categories, the Western representative of the tragedy theories provide us with the theoretical basis and ideological resources which help us to choose research subjects, to interpret and explain tragedy text deeply, to know and understand the complexity of the tragedy concept generation of modern Chinese writer. There are many factors played a part in many tragedy texts appearing, such as the unrest background of the Modern Chinese historical, the conflict of pluralistic value system transformation, the comprehensive awakening of the life consciousness, the potential impact of traditional religious consciousness, unremitting efforts of the main value construction, and relatively free cultural context. These tragedy texts also provide the possibility for illumination and explanation again of this subject“Study on the tragedy narration in the Chinese modern fiction”.First, the Chinese tragedy concept of the modern writers both are stimulated and inspired by the Western tragedy theory and the tragedy literary, and also react to the China subjective ideas, culture and literature of writers being in. Lu Xun’s tragic view focused on examining of the national cultural psychology; Yu Dafu’s focused on experiencing of life existence, Bin Xin and Xu Zhi Mo’s focused on the tragedy Canon regularity, Shen Cong Wen’s focused on the expression of human nature and aesthetic connotation , Zhang Ai Ling’s tended to view the modern literary and art. These different concepts of tragedy largely determined the diversity and richness of modern Chinese fiction tragedy narrative. The generation of modern Chinese fiction creation subjects’s concept of tragedy associated with reflection of the comedy. For understanding of the "reunion" awareness, modern Chinese writers had experienced a historic process of from comprehensive negative, some positive, to promote. This process is both literary and practical understanding of the concept of an extension of the process of comprehensive and in-depth, but also the tragedy of the main creative consciousness and the tragedy of the spirit of the weak by the strong process. Secondly, the creation subject similar social and emotional experience, and value position made tragedy narration in the Chinese modern fiction appeared similar narrative form, , the structure of content, produced a type of motif tendency. The motif of " The widow childless " will make history resources, personal experience and desires expression, aesthetic creation in a condensed, and own the double function of value expression and traumatic traces. This motif that has deeply hidden gender consciousness will make women writers to avoid it. The motif of“Transmigration”is both in line with the modern Chinese history plight and the writer’s feelings of the times, reflecting the modern Chinese life and history expectation, but also and a modern intellectual concept of time, history, and the western modernism aesthetics intervention relevant. The motif of“Non-virgins”is generated by a common action of the individual life self value maintenance, the instinct of ethical knowledge and progressives, desire narrative function of metaphor symbols of the commercial quality. There are three types: non-virgins tragedy in the feudal moral order, non-virgins experience under the modern value, and the non-virgins metaphor in political ideology. They all produced the tragedy texts of different value orientation, content structure, the concept of justice. "Incest" is a motif that appeared in the background of traditional patriarchy husbandly declined. Lead to tragedy on the one hand is social and moral pressure on the scorn, on the other hand, it is difficult to get rid of the traitor itself and mental weakness in history. This type of text which describe and analyze the subconscious, dreams, and the psychological convey the message about tragedy of modern Chinese fiction and psychoanalysis theories of western theory of tragedy exchanging. Non-direct blood relatives of the incest narrative embodies the modern writers in the non-rational description of the boundary of the rational and moral bottom line. The motif of“Kill relatives”is the product of "Un-filial behavior" thought, such narrative has two text types: "Father murdered children" and " Son killed his father ". In the former type, "the crime of the father" is the dominant narrative structure, to expose the traditional moral values, the power of genetic defects in the structural order; in the latter type, "my crime" is the implicit narrative of the structure of awareness of non-filial piety and extreme irrational tendency to carry out a reflection. These five motives derived from the tragic narrative of the performance of the profound complexity of the transition period in the history of modern Chinese intellectuals, the spirit of confusion and cultural identity crisis. Third, a number of writers of tragedy narrative art is full of personal appearance because of the idea of different feelings, artistic personality, motivation. Lu Xun’s narrative attention often from a concern over heroine’s suffering of "the well-being and happiness" towards to the narrator the self-narrative of "the spirit of adversity". This spiritual and soul dilemmas is the inevitable production of a high degree of idealization of the modern value which is still dominant in the traditional order. Facing the predicament and an unconquerable soul, no spiritual conflicts, narrator don’t go into destruction and sorrow, but through the ego self value of personality and identity raises more fighting spirit. Ba Jin’s narrative of the tragedy has three important dimensions of the aesthetic: "agitation ", "repentance", "philosophy". "Agitation" in the narrative contains a powerful force, and the clank of the noble characters of the divine quality of worship, coincide the ancient Greek tragic hero’s personality characteristics and moral realm; "repentance," the main narrative is a creative revolution in the cultural practice and practice real-life experience into a symbol translation; "philosophical" narrative concerns a specific personnel outside of the general concept of authenticity than fable, the significance is greater than the image of "to rest garden" that is the most representative. Shen Cong Wen’s attention on the tragedy narrative was the life conflicts with the laws of nature. The fact that the destruction of the demise of the beautiful natural landscape and the business structure with a "total beauty is sad" is reached. Repeatedly commended his narrative, taken from the history of the planning model and the heterogeneity of the tragedy, not only avoided the turmoil at the time of chaos and complexity of the political environment of the human environment, but also deny the tragedy of the mainstream narrative discourse of truth and hegemony. Shen Cong-wen’s the tragedy of the novel narrative is similar to ancient Greek tragedy and artistic approach way that bring to the readers of the ultra-utilitarian aesthetic pleasure, which also lost to some extent, the educational work. Zhang Ai Ling ’s tragedy narrative often abstracts of certain universality and necessity and put it the opposite of the heroine, so that they are suffering and being destroyed. Their works are full of the“Kill relatives”, which break the narrative of modern literary culture in the curse, giving a new quality of work. Zhang Ai Ling’s favorite artistic control varies the conscious creation of an atmosphere created to highlight the tragedy of the two text characteristics: predicted by the uniqueness and special nature of a reversal.In addition, the creation of the tragedy narration in the Chinese modern fiction is not only stem from unique existence of the modern society history, a individual with the writer’s life experience, but also to take root in the nation jointly owned by the real collective experience - the time-honored, well-known tradition of tragedy classic - "A Dream of Red Mansions." Although the "Dream of Red Mansions" prowess of the artistic achievements of the modern writers generally feel "the impact of anxiety," but "A Dream of Red Mansions," a profound ideological, and the extraordinary power of artistic expression, as well as modern Chinese history with the title repeated proposition and the arts to writers in modern literature and creative re-evaluation of old new literature to promote the process of being repeatedly cited. "A Dream of Red Mansions" provided about standard and code of the history, destiny, life and death, for modern writers show ego emotional experience, thought, feelings, and life culture provides a ready-made art formula and artistic elements, some writers will extract some "formula" and "components" to bring into the art of self-contained structure, forming a narrative of the tragedy of modern fiction’s "Red plot" and "Structure of the Red Mansion." When the modern writer shaped tragedy characters like "Lin Dai Yu", they absorb a variety of aesthetic approach is completed with the tension between the social reality of the construct. Also affected by time and space in the entity body of the value of the binding force, to some extent deviated from the original art. In the "The sons and daughters of the rich man", there are full of the Rise and fall of implicit memory, nostalgia cases, traumatic experiences, psychological guilt, as well as the people have the mental Sunny, mourn Red psychological and operation rights of the mainstream discourse, violence, planning, non-moral motives are related to the extremely sensitive "A Dream of Red Mansions" are very similar. "The Arctic Village’s Love Myth" and "A Woman in the Tower" staggered mixed use of space-time multi-dimensional perspective, the "Dream of Red Mansions" of the overall tragedy of Schemata and the first half of the 20th century, China’s social and historical background of life combine to create a love of cultural, religious and philosophical meaning of life fable.Finally, the rhetorical devices of the tragedy narration in the Chinese modern fiction are also quite characteristic. The first is the rhetoric predicted. Taboo thinking, prophecies, dreams, and the text of the classic tragedy of the intertextuality metonymy are the main means of Modern Chinese novel tragic prophecy relying on. " Spring in the fall" is a symbolic image of a systematic, predicted that the typical way to use the template superb. Tragedy narrative of modern Chinese fiction’s structure of the "predicted" are directly connected with t and the potential impact of the conventional thinking, to emotional involvement of the creation subject, as well as symbolic, suggesting that the conscious use of sexual practices. The second is rhetorical irony. The tragedy of modern Chinese fiction narrative rhetoric of irony is a multi-cultural value system in the modern Chinese soul, and faith, between the value of conflict, division and fragmentation of the historical and cultural contexts of the art image and performance model. There are three types: the language of the tragedy irony, scene of tragedy irony and structural tragedy irony. The tragedy of modern Chinese fiction narrative rhetoric of irony involved in the cultural structure, class structure, and personality structure, life structure, the fate of all existence of the structure as the domain contrast tension. The third is rhetorical intertextuality. Chinese modern fiction is often by the size of different scales in the text of the sub-text, the sub-text with mother text to build a fresh, the integrity of the tragedy. Diachronic, interspersed, and parallel are three main ways of rhetoric. Their narrative functions are different, but have integrity and integrity pursuit of artistic. They have complete performance of the life course, or depth of excavation of the characters psychological, or to grasp the macro view of society, and have narrative structure and function, emotional function symbols, and social analysis of function.
        

中国现代小说中的悲剧叙事研究

内容提要4-6
绪论6-32
    第一节 概念的溯源与界定6-20
    第二节 中国现代小说悲剧叙事的发生20-28
    第三节 研究现状与问题的提出28-32
第一章 中国现代作家的悲剧观念32-52
    第一节 中国现代作家对“悲剧”问题的认识32-42
    第二节 中国现代作家对“团圆”问题的认识42-52
第二章 中国现代小说悲剧叙事中的主题类型52-104
    第一节 寡妇丧子:符号功能与主体体验52-61
    第二节 轮回:现实的折射与现代的沉思61-72
    第三节 失贞:从“灵肉分裂”到“灵肉互喻”,再到“灵肉互诘”72-84
    第四节 乱伦:非理性化的理性叙事84-93
    第五节 弑亲:“非孝”和“非孝”的反思93-104
第三章 中国现代小说悲剧叙事的个性化特征104-146
    第一节 鲁迅:“幸福快乐”与“精神逆境”104-114
    第二节 巴金:激越·忏悔·哲思114-125
    第三节 沈从文:以命运质疑正义125-134
    第四节 张爱玲:内容的独特与格式的陌生134-146
第四章 中国现代小说悲剧叙事中的“红楼魅影”146-188
    第一节 影响的焦虑与借鉴的自觉146-153
    第二节 “红楼梦”的叙事机制与新意义的建构153-162
    第三节 “林黛玉”原型的现代形象162-171
    第四节 《财主底儿女们》:形神兼备的家族悲剧171-181
    第五节 《北极村情话》《塔里的女人》:美学境界的移植与商业效应的获取181-188
第五章 中国现代小说悲剧叙事的修辞技巧188-218
    第一节 预言:暗示性与象征化策略188-198
    第二节 反讽:暧昧张力下的反诘互问198-209
    第三节 互文:混合型模式与完整叙事209-218
参考文献218-223
攻读博士期间发表的学术论文223-224
后记224-225
中文摘要225-229
Abstract229-233


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