知青记忆的不同书写

—— 知青作者知青小说的差异性研究
Different Writing about the Memory of the Educated Youth

作者: 专业:中国现当代文学 导师:孟繁华 年度:2009 学位:博士 

关键词
知青小说 知青作者 差异性

        本论文以知青作者所写的反映“知青”时期及“后知青”时期社会生活的小说文本为主要研究对象,以“差异性”为研究知青小说的一个视角,探究了兵团知青小说与插队知青小说在理想主义精神气质、苦难叙事、对“红卫兵”时期的群体意识反思等方面的差异,具有时期性特征的“知青话语”在其历时性演变中所表现出来的差异性以及男女知青作者之间、长幼知青作者之间、知青作者与非知青作者之间在叙述视角、叙述立场等方面的差异。并由此阐释文学与历史叙事之间的关系,即文学往往并非追求一种历史意义上的“真实”,文学的独特性在于它所表达的是人类关于自身的情感历程和内心世界。知青小说,作为一种对“知青”记忆及历史的文学叙述,其“差异性”的存在正是出自写作者各自有异且绝非“客观”的生命体验与内心感受。从某种意义上说,正是知青小说固有的种种差异性体现了叙事与历史之间的微妙关系。
    In the contemporary history of China, Down to the Countryside Movement for the urban educated youth began in 1953. "Educated youth" in its narrow sense refers to the generation of high school graduates who responded to the call of Mao Zedong during the Cultural Revolution that certain privileged urban youth should be sent to mountainous areas or farming villages so that they could learn from the workers and farmers there. Born between late 1940s and early 1950s, most of these young people lived and worked in the production team, state-run farms or Corps in the remote areas of China during 1968 to 1978. "Educated youth" in its broad sense includes not only the young people we mentioned above but also the generation who answered the sending-down policy in the early 1960s and worked in rural areas of China from 1953 to 1968. However, in Contemporary Chinese literature, the novels reflecting the lives of the latter group are few and far from forming "collective memory" of a whole generation. Contrary to this, as a literary group, the creation and works of the educated youth, whose main part were the junior and senior high school graduates of 1966~1968 and involved in the Down to the Countryside Movement during the“Cultural Revolution”, have become an important literary and cultural phenomenon in contemporary literary and cultural history. Therefore, the "educated youth" discussed in the thesis, whether in the author’s identity, or in the subject of the works, refers to "educated youth" in its narrow sense, who has become a unique social group in contemporary Chinese history.The paper limits its research subject to the novels reflecting the lives of“educated youth”written by the“educated youth”authors. With the inherent differences in the "educated youth novel" as an entry point for the study of the "educated youth”literature and phenomenon, the paper attempts to illustrate non-integrity in the notion "educated youth novel”, to show the diversity of Educated Youth history and to discuss the complex relationship between literature and history."Educated youth" in this paper falls into two different types. The first type of youth scattered in different places and had to work hard, like farmers, to earn a living, for they could not get provisions from the state government since the second year they worked in rural areas. The second type, who worked and lived in large groups in Production teams and Construction Corps, got stable pay from the government although they suffered a lot as pioneers. Different life style has brought different experience and memory, all of which are reflected in the novels written by these two different types of authors. Farm and farmers are important parts in the life of young people of the first type. As a result, their narration has unexpectedly become a component of Chinese modern and contemporary regional literature although fundamental differences can be found when a comparison is made with these typical writers of regional literature. Due to the organization structure and personnel composition, the writers in the second type suffered a lack of profound understanding of local customs and their narration is rarely related to the Chinese modern and contemporary regional literature."Suffering" is a theme always found in educated youth novels. While the writers in the first type were describing their bitterness and sorrows, the writers in the second type raised the banner of heroism; when the writers in the first type diverted their attention to the hard life endured by the farmers in the rural areas, the writers in the second type began to document their tragedies. The time difference precisely indicates that these two types of writers reflected the idealism during 1950s and 1960s and collectivism during the“Red Guards”period from different dimensions. Generally speaking, the grand narrative of the writers in the second type moved their readers once and once again but showed a lack of endurance. Different from this, the writers in the first type diverted their attention from their own suffering to the search of“roots”in the local cultures.The era when the story is told is different from the era when the story really happened. This difference may explain the fact that same history and memory are narrated differently in different historical periods. Even for the individuals who have gone through that hard life, diachronic differences appear in their narratives about that period of history. The creation by the same author may also make some changes in different historical context. The repeated narration doesn’t mean the repetition of the same idea, for when retelling a story the authors not only adopted a new narrative approach, but also conferred greater meaning and depth upon the narration so that stronger and richer life experience and understanding can be expressed through literature.The repeated writing of certain national and collective memory results from the fact that that period in history always assumes a kind of“contemporariness”under different situations. The“educated youth”discourse is never the same and without any change. It has typical time characteristics, which can be understood as the diachronic differences. Before the literary trend of so-called“roots literature”, the educated youth novel evolved from the description of trauma to the reflection of their tragedies, just as what happened to the literary trends in the new period. During the trauma period, the educated youth novels echoed the theme of times and their voice are drowned in the mournful melody of historical, national and social tragedies. During the reflection period, the educated youth writers, accidentally, or intendedly maybe, played down their identity as“Red Guards”during the“Cultural Revolution”and intensified their identity as the“educated youth”participating in the Down to the Countryside Movement, which is a significant difference with the right-wing writers in the same period. It is from that time on that those educated youth authors began to have their own voice.Since 1985, the contemporary Chinese literature has come into an era of literary and cultural diversity, in which literature has transferred from grand narrative to individualized narrative. Educated youth novel began a new period with the emergence of some authors with distinct styles. These new novels have an intertexual relationship with the novels previously written and with the same subject matter."Educated youth", belong to the same generation, however, there are some differences even among the same generation. For example, because of the sexual difference, male and female educated youth authors have different narrative perspective, standpoints and styles when dealing with the experiences under the same system and region. In addition, those young people went to countryside and other rural areas in different time and therefore had different experiences, all of which resulted in the fact that the authors had completely different understanding of life, history and society. We have to admit that the writing of the educated youth authors is only a kind of subjective imagination and construction, with inherent partiality and limitations. In this thesis, a comparison is made to explore the differences in texts between educated youth authors and non educated youth authors so that we can find a lack of in the educated youth discourse.For the writers, the consistent enthusiasm for the educated youth subject matter stems from the "irreplaceable history"; for the researchers, their ongoing enthusiasm comes from the "replaceable narrative." Educated youth novels, as a narrative form for the history of youth, have fully displayed the subtle relationship between the narrative and the history. The study shows that the different writings for the same history results from the different life experiences and inner feelings of different writers. Having experienced that period of history, the educated youth writers would never forget the rich and real life of that era. In the literary world created by the educated youth writers themselves, the once young people documented their life and history in their own way and this is the most important. When we face the irreplaceable and untranscended history, what we can obtain from the educated youth novels is not the“reality of history”, but the spiritual and emotional paths of the individuals in that particular period of history.
        

知青记忆的不同书写

内容提要4-7
绪论 知青小说同一性的裂变7-21
    一、“知青”:一个独特的群体7-9
    二、知青小说:一代人“共同记忆”的书写9-13
    三、知青小说同一性的碎裂:知青记忆的不同书写13-21
第一章 不同“体制”的记忆书写:插队知青小说与兵团知青小说的差异21-94
    第一节 农村—兵团:同为“知青”的不同去向21-28
        一、经历不同,感受各异21-23
        二、“地域”差异与“体制”差异23-26
        三、插队知青小说与兵团知青小说的“貌似神离”26-28
    第二节 乡村诗意与青春赞歌:理想主义精神气质的不同取向28-59
        一、乡土文学链条中的知青小说与“有土无乡”的兵团小说28-33
        二、相见不如怀念:诗意乡村的乌托邦想象33-48
        三、“宏大叙事”:“兵团战士”的青春书写48-59
    第三节 谁的苦难:两种体制下的苦难叙事59-77
        一、知青之痛·农民之苦·知青之恶60-68
        二、青春沉思录68-77
    第四节 “我们”与“我”:红卫兵时期群体意识的延续与倾覆77-94
        一、感动指数与持久力79-86
        二、“根”的诉求及其困境86-94
第二章 不同年代的记忆书写:知青小说历时性差异94-168
    第一节 并不重复的思想:知青作者自身创作的差异96-114
        一、反思的限度98-107
        二、反思的尺度107-114
    第二节 1985 年之前知青小说的时期性差异114-131
        一、从时代悲剧中青春悲剧的嵌入到革命身份的剥离116-124
        二、整体演进中的“另类”书写124-131
    第三节 整体碎裂后的分化131-151
        一、宏大叙事的建构与解构134-143
        二、由精英代言到商业操作143-151
    第四节 集体记忆的历史书写:时间的参照与历史的焦虑151-168
        一、时间的参照153-160
        二、历史的焦虑160-168
第三章 不同知青作者的记忆书写:知青作者间对知青记忆书写的差异168-208
    第一节 男女之异——男女知青作者的性别意识168-183
        一、男性知青作者笔下的女性镜像170-176
        二、女性知青作者的镜像突围176-183
    第二节 长幼之异——知青一代长幼作者间的差异183-192
        一、爱情神话的破灭185-189
        二、岁月之无边无尽189-192
    第三节 非知青作者的想象书写——非知青作者与知青作者在叙述立场上的差异192-208
        一、《鬼子进村》与《阿勒克足球》:童年记忆中的两种知青书写194-198
        二、《大树还小》与《小树已大》:同一思维理念下的不同叙述立场198-203
        三、“家”归何处:并非“知青”独有的精神困境203-208
结语 多样的知青文学世界208-212
参考文献212-217
攻读博士学位期间发表的学术论文及其成果217-218
中文摘要218-223
Abstract223-228
后记229-230


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