The Turn of the Century Literary Criticism Xinchao
作者： 刘雪松 专业：中国现当代文学 导师：李新宇 年度:2009 学位：博士
关键词世纪之交 中国文学 批评 新潮
Turn of the century, Chinese literature, criticism, New Wave
The research that the thesis wants to do is on the new criticism situation appearing in Chinese literary world at the turning of the century. The so-called turning of the century refers to the historical stage formed by the time between the 1990’s and entering the new century. The so-called new rising of literary criticism is just the new emerging criticism genre, which includes a variety of new criticizing methods and criticizing concepts .The origin of the topic: I’m interested in the subject, at first mainly because of all kinds of initial criticism of emerging competition brought about by the stage debut of dazzling landscape to attract, and then it triggered contradictions and conflicts posed a greater temptation. As we all know, since the 90’s literary criticism is colorful, forming the most abundant and the most active landscape of the history of Chinese contemporary literary criticism. Different from the 80’s literary criticism, since the 90’s Chinese literary criticism there have been some high-profile sectors of the emerging genre. Although some schools in the early 80’s have emerged, in the 90s they have grown up like the rainbows and the new trend in some schools didn’t appear until the turning of the century, such as post-modernism, post-colonialism, new historicism, the new left criticism, feminist criticism. They and the inherent together created“the public voice of hubbub”of the turn of the century literary criticism. Clearly, these criticisms makes literary criticism much richer and more active, giving us a new vision, new methods and new words, and also play their own roles in guiding the literary and artistic creation, and guiding readers to read and building literary theory as well as planning the future of Chinese culture, etc. At the same time, it also left us with a series of questions worth considering. Discussion of these issues and follow-up questions, literary criticism of gain and loss, experiences and lessons of the survey and summary of literary criticism for its construction are clearly necessary. It is precisely due to such a mind, I chose this topic. The value of this research: Looking back on the period of history which just passed, sorting out since the 90’s the course of development of literary criticism, inspecting the criticism of individual schools, and finding its achievements and shortcomings, it is clearly necessary not only to recognize this stage of literary criticism, but also to recognize the time ideological and cultural status quo. Literary criticism of literary analysis and evaluation of the status quo can make the accumulation of material for writing the literary history. As a "critical criticism", literary criticism phenomenon being analyzed and evaluated can also accumulate valuable materials for criticism history. At the world turning, literary criticism is colorful, showing a significant turning point and change, which contains a wealth of information. Timely study it, carding, analysis and research, should not be superfluous. As a dynastic history, this period has its own unique value. To do a special inspection on this new factor in the dynastic history has its unique natural value. In addition, at the turn of the century to study new schools of literary criticism can also display the mental outlook of time from one aspect. The literary criticism of the turn of the century is not an isolated phenomenon. Since the 90’s with the Chinese Cultural Changing and the complexity of the overall transition that is phasing towards exterior, it is Chinese mental changing status quo on the modernization process and one of important silhouettes on contradictions and conflicts. Therefore, inspecting 90’s literary criticism can not only watch the cognitive perspective on the literature creation at the turning of century, and can recognize the art of thinking program from the way of literary criticism during this period, but also in literary criticism can see all of different concepts and thoughts fighting and from the saying a variety of spiritual care can see a hot time and depth. Therefore, since the 90’s study of literary criticism, its significance lies not only in the development of literary criticism to re-recognize, but also at the same time in reconsidering literary criticism and the way of historical dialogue.The research status quo: the criticism and research about the 90’s literary criticism began in the early 1990s. In the past ten years, we have made a lot of results. These research results offered much more inspiration and help for my research, but until now we still have not seen the researching and exploring books about the 90’s the face of emerging literary criticism to conduct. Such is the situation on research community that has left a more open space for my study, so it makes me regardless of my own knowledge of the primitive and I decide to conduct an overall inspection, carding and research on the new wave of the literary criticism of the turning of the century.The basic idea in the thesis: this paper intercepted such a paragraph that was less than twenty years since the 90’s, I paied close attention to the new trend appearing in literary criticism. Doing it looked easy but I have overcome the great difficulty to choose the focus of this paper. At first the problem lies in that so much new situation appeared though it was a short history about ten years. Moreover, investigating from a different perspective and different quality will be a new emergent. For instance, as a new trend, the media criticism is also a new phenomenon, academic criticism has many new signs, too and there are divergent views of cultural criticism and so on, but if bringing them completely into it, it’s very easy to form a messy heap and mutual cross-cutting, overlapping each other. Moreover, this article didn’t concern about everything. Eventually this article focused on a few most important new phenomenon in literary criticism since the 90’s: that is, post-modern criticism, postcolonial criticism, new criticism of historicism, the new left-wing criticism, feminist criticism. It is since the 90’s they that have made literary criticism more abundant and active, and brought new vision and discourse, but it also is they that have brought more questions. Thus, sorting these criticism schools, making out where they came from and development of its trajectory, and exploring their contributions and questions are the main purpose of writing this article.The basic method in the thesis: facing the turn of the century literary fashion, the taken method of the article is to discuss them one by one. I attempted drawing more clear an outline of each new genre to make a concrete analysis. The structure of the thesis was formed one of another by the appearing time of criticized genre. While sorting every criticized schools, it generally focused on the theories of the criticized schools and criticism in practice, the criticized characteristics, significance and limitations and their own contradictions and paradoxes, and some aspects from the outside to the inside, from the appearance to the essence to sum, sum up, expounded and analysis, and try to show each appearance and characteristics of them. In the concrete combing, this article mainly used the following methods: 1, pay attention to explaining the text and studying a simple case, attach importance to the fact, make efforts to avoid the empty discussions. While discussing every criticism of schools, made efforts to avoid vague discourse, and drew conclusions and summed up through the interpretation of the text with case study. 2, Contrasting perspectives by the time, this study was about the 90’s literary criticism, the changes of literary criticism of this time were in relation to the purposes of the 80’s, so in the stating process, it was necessary to make the 80’s literary criticism background to show its new characteristic and historical coordinates by connecting the 80’s literary criticism .Body:Chapter I: This chapter carried out the combing postmodernism mainly from the following aspects: First was the characteristic of the theory of the post-modernist criticism and representative critics. Second was the practice of post-modern criticism. Third was the characteristics of post-modern criticism. Forth was the significance and limitations of post-modern criticism, in which "the practice of literary criticism”of post-modernism was thoroughly analyzed, mainly from the plane of value judgments and the digestion on the modernity sorted out them from these two dimensions, basically summarized the practice of literary criticism of the post-modern criticism. Although previous research have expounded these two dimensions, only one side was discussed, seldom put them together to have a thoroughly discovery and even combined less them with special critical practice, the thesis did a more comprehensive research on these two dimensions on the basic of the explanation of the text.Chapter II: post-colonial criticismAt the post-colonial criticism, the term "aphasia", "Chinese" and " theory of Third World systems" constituted its important voice, this thesis launched a statement around the topics above criticism of the practice of post-colonial. And it explored the saying of the theory of these post-colonials and the collaborate of post-modern, the New Left and the cultural conservatism and investigated and questioned the trend which they commonly formed the anti-modernity, dispelling enlightenment of. When the post-colonial theory entered the theory of domestic film and criticism, in a powerful way it introduced the political dimension to the traditional theory of movie critics that can not take into account, providing a possible criticism for revealing the structure of power relations theory. Some award-winning films on foreign (Western)Film Festival, directed by Director Zhang Yimou, and the fifth generation directors etc. have become the targets, that is, China’s post-colonial critics earned dripping to the arena to display their skill, and it also is an important aspect that post-colonial criticism of Chinese put into practice. In this regard, this paper combined the theory of "Orientalism" to make more analysis. Chapter III: The new historical criticismThe thesis summed up the situation that the new history criticism’s theory spread in China on the one hand, and analyzed the significances and paradox situation of new historical criticism, on the other hand, it put emphasis on exploring the critical practice of new historical criticism in China so three areas were selected for this start: First was about the practice in the new historical novel that the new historical criticism did; Second was about the new history interpreting the text of literary history (mainly about questions on rewriting the history of cultural the history of literature); Third was about new historical criticism critic and research on the theme of works of the films and Television of the new historical period.Chapter IV: New Left criticAbout the New Left critic, the thesis did research besides on its ideological orientation, the position of opinion, background of knowledge and understanding of reality on the issue and above all put emphasis on its practice of literary critic. Since the 90’s "rewriting the history of literature," "the bottom of writing," the excavation" of "left-wing literary tradition " reappraising the "Cultural Revolution Literature" and "Seventeen Years Literature" and so on, have been a hot topic for critics, and all of them were indistinctly connected with the New Left. After the thesis combed the above-mentioned aspects, it discussed phenomenon of some sort of advocacy, "the bottom of writing," emphasize of the carrying forward "left-wing literary tradition". Chapter V: Feminist Criticism A number of monographs and papers have reflected and summarized about feminist criticism from different angles, but most of the 90’s feminist criticism did not concern the characteristics of literary critic enough. Therefore, on the basis of comparing with the 80’s feminist criticism, this article centered on the analyzing the personality characteristics of the practice of the 90’s feminist criticism. The significance of 90’s feminist criticism, difficulties and problems to be solved were explored in it.Conclusion:By combing the above-mentioned , we found that since the 90’s the literary criticism is active, at least in the past half century, there is no other period of literary criticism has so much knowledge and methods on exploration. From the methods of post-modernist criticism getting prevalent to the rising of post-colonialism, new historicism and feminist criticism and so on , literary criticism is always looking for more effective methods and angles to mix with Chinese literature. These efforts were not without significance that the new historicism, post-colonialism and women owners’rising reintroduced the political, economic, historical, social, and cultural perspectives beyond the literary. And also it will save the literature from the claustrophobic of the "pure literature" and "literary" with literary criticism given the connotation of a more massive and more practical significance. Literature re-imported the sea by the stream. The people with the idea of post-modern, post-colonial enjoyed multi-cultural , emphasizing the open culture and opposed to a single, recognizing the difference and they also opposed to criticism of the principle of hegemony, although there were the ingredients of misreading miscellaneously and strategy, eventually people were accustomed to be willing to stay from one place to a multiple co-existing, thus offering the formation of an opportunity to have a kind of tolerance, dialogue, atmosphere. In short, the introduction of these methods and perspective not only brought us the new vision and realm to the criticism, but also made it become more diverse and rich, but there are still many questions to the century literary criticism at the turning, which makes literary criticism facing a lot of difficulties. Therefore, We also need to constantly fill correcting disadvantages, against all kinds of errors. Literary criticism is promoted by the rise of trendy toward pluralism, but pluralism is not the ultimate goal with literary criticism development. Examining the development of literary and art criticism, any one of the normal period of literary or art criticism is all multi-division and multi-general complementary dynamic process. If there were no multi-General literary criticism, there would be no complementary to each other prosperity and development. From the multi-differentiation to multiple complementary is literary or art criticism’s history of the inevitable choice literary when it is constantly evolving, and constantly increasing proliferation. In this sense, since the 90’s the new rising of literary criticism is merely precondition and preparation when it goes to the complementary and multi-General.
|（一） 对80 年代“新启蒙”与“重写文学史”的反思||141-153|