俄苏翻译文学与中国现代文学

The Translated Russian Literature and Modern Chinese Literature

作者: 专业:中国现当代文学 导师:张福贵 年度:2009 学位:博士 

关键词
俄苏文学 翻译 中国现代文学

Keywords
Russian literature, translation, Modern Chinese Literature
        外国文学译介是中国现代文学得以成为“现代”的重要条件,这其中俄苏文学的影响尤为深远。然而,我们所说的影响不是传统“刺激-反应”模式下的单向度运动,也不是主体完全主动摄取的结果,而应理解为主体意志下自我与他者经过复杂地对抗、交流、转换与改写后的结果。外来文化作为他者凝聚了文化自我的投射,并且仅仅在主体文化内部才能发挥作用。现代翻译理论认为,对翻译文学的文化研究恰恰是揭示跨语际实践中自我与他者、异域文学与本土文学、文学与政治意识形态等其他领域复杂关系的最佳场所。因此探究中俄文学关系,自然首先应将注意力集中于俄苏翻译文学的研究之上。俄苏翻译文学研究的领域极为广阔,本文选择了几个重要侧面作初步的探究。首先,作家作品的译介是翻译文学的基础,本文以现代中国译介最多的托尔斯泰为中心,在梳理译介史实的基础之上,集中描述分析各个时期国人眼中托尔斯泰形象的演变与产生的原因,对托尔斯泰作品的不同关注与解读,以及“托尔斯泰批判”的译介和左翼文学批评模式的关系等问题。其次,现实主义作为20世纪中国文学中最重要的文学思潮,在它从写实主义到新写实主义再到社会主义现实主义的流变过程中,俄苏文学一直以各种方式参与塑形。俄苏文学作品与理论文本的译介具体发挥了怎样的作用,导致何种结果,特别是反思翻译选择和阐释策略在其中的关键作用,是这一部分论述的重点。再次,列宁的“党的文学”的观念,是几十年里中国最具权威性的思想。重新审视这一理论从俄国到中国的旅行轨迹,为我们更好的理解文学自身特性提供了一个很好的个案。最后,本文将以“国民性”、“人民性”话语为中心,探讨翻译活动所具有的政治性。
    The translation of foreign literature is an important factor for the modernization of Modern Chinese Literature, among which the impact of the translation of the Russian literature is influential. This impact includes not only the understanding of the responsibility of the writers and the intellectuals and the presupposition of the literature values and functions, but also the choices of the literary forms, literary trends and literary themes. However, this impact is not unidirectional as in the traditional pattern of“Stimulus-Response”, nor is it a result of a subject’s initiative ingestion. Rather, under the influence of the subjective will, the self struggles, communicates and converts and adapts with the other in a complicated way. The foreign culture as the other is a self-projection of culture, and it can only play a role inside the subjective culture. The contemporary translation theory holds that the cultural studies of the translated literature can best reveal the complex relationships between the self and the other in the translingual practice, the oversea literature and the local literature, and the literature and the political consciousness and etc. Therefore, in the study of the relationship of Chinese and Russian Literature, the focus should be on the study of the translated Russian literature.The study of the translated Russian literature is broad. In this article, the author chooses some essential aspects as a preliminary research. At first, as the translations of particular works and writers are the basis for the translated literature, the author chooses the works of Tolstoy, which are most translated in China. On the basis of the history of translated literature, the author describes the changes of Tolstoy’s image in Chinese people’s view in different periods and explains its reasons, expounds the different concerns and interpretations of the works of Tolstoy and the relationship of the translations of its literary criticisms and the left-wing criticisms. Furthermore, the author proposes that Chinese Culture and literature itself needed changes is the main reason that Chinese people pay attention to Tolstoy and his works continuously in more than one hundred years. Subjectivity is easily ignored in the traditional theory of influence and reception. The subjective conscious choice results in the optional objective reception, thus leading to a kind of misinterpretation. This kind of misinterpretation is not a simple mistake, but rather it is a meaningful choice under specific historical circumstances.Secondly, Realism, as a significant literary trend in the 20th century Chinese Literature, is formed and changed by the Russian literature in the process from Realism to Neo-realism and then to Socialist Realism. The development of the May Fourth New Culture Movement plays a crucial role in the revelation of Realism from many other literary trends. The slogan of the May Fourth Movement is“Science and Democracy”. Under the influence of the idea that science is omnipotent, Realism, representing the spirit of science, gains great value and becomes the basic claims and goals of Chinese New Culture. Under the influence of the concept of democracy, Chinese New Culture advocates people’s literature, civilian literature and social literature, whose central idea is to advocate humanitarianism. The translation of the Russian literature works plays a significant role in it. If the scientific aspect of Chinese New Culture originates from Naturalism in French literature, then its humanitarian aspect comes from Realism in Russian literature. The concept of“Science and Democracy”determines the perspectives that Chinese literature chooses, which emphasizes the literary social value rather than the pure literary aesthetic value. The controversy between science and metaphysics leads to the splitting among the Chinese intellectuals believing in scientific principle. Materialistic conception of history sublates the concept of Positivism in a more scientific attitude. The controversy of“Revolutionary Literature”promotes a large number of the translated works of Russian“New Literature”theory under the guidance of the concept of Materialism. The central concept of Realism also changes from a wide humanitarianism to a more distinctive class theory. Neo-realism has already begun to separate itself from the original Realism, but at that time the controversy is still on the literary aspects, while the Russian Socialist Realism is a totally political expression, even a party’s ideological expression to serve for the political struggles. Since the 1930s and 1940s this theory has come into China. As a result Realism in political ideology plays a dominant role in the theory of Realism, and concurrently Instrumentalism with creative methods rises again and holds a dominant position.Thirdly, from a historical point of view, the connotation and denotation of the word“literature”are continuously changing and thus views on literary values show different tendencies for multiple historical and cultural factors. Therefore the idea of “literature”is not an intrinsic idea, but a constantly changing concept of“discourse practice”.“The Party’s Literature”, an idea proposed by Lenin, is in a position of authority for decades in China. It is an appropriate case for the better understanding of the features of literature itself by reviewing the changing process of this theory from Russia to China. The idea of“the Party’s Literature”has an inner correspondence with the idea of Chinese modern literature, which provides moral supports and serves for Politics and eventually becomes an instructive concept for several decades after the publication of Mao Zedong’s Talks at Yan’an Forum on Literature and Art and becomes institutionalized. In the evaluation of“the Party’s Literature”, we should not derogate its loss of aesthetic quality, but we should understand that in the specific historical circumstances, under the influences of multiple forces, literature itself has become a result under the discipline of power and knowledge.Finally, in this article the author discusses all the political aspects of translation activities with“Nationalism”and“People’s Character”as the centre. The establishment of a modern national state is a crucial concern for Chinese society. During this establishment the incessant focus is how to locate the relationship among the individuals, the society and the state and how to integrate the individuals into specific political groups. As a result there appear three tendencies, Nationalism, National Character and Class theory. In the ideological level“Nationalism”“National Character”and“People’s Character”become the key concepts in the theoretical criticism. In this chapter the author starts the discussion from the original meaning of and the inner relationship among these three concepts, and then expounds the complicated ideological, political and realistic relationships that these foreign words have made in corresponding, fighting and converting with Chinese local resources in the environment of modern China, especially in the fight and the conversion between the western national discourse and the Russian national discourse. The author endeavors to reveal the duality of the politics of translation: on the one hand it is disciplined by the modern politics and culture, on the other hand it is the place where the controversies occur and it is involved in the political ideological controversy in a special manner.
        

俄苏翻译文学与中国现代文学

内容提要4-7
第1章 绪论7-31
    1.1 外国文学译介与中国现代文学主体性和现代性的建构7-12
    1.2 “五四”前的俄国文学译介12-16
    1.3 “中俄相似性”神话与“五四”时期俄国文学译介16-26
    1.4 研究对象与目的、研究方法及展开路径26-31
第2章 托尔斯泰与中国现代文学31-78
    2.1 初入中土的托尔斯泰:宗教家与道德家32-38
    2.2 “五四”时期:从“轨道破坏者”到革命“最初之动力”38-45
    2.3 “革命文学”论争时期:“从新估价”与新的批评模式45-72
        2.3.1 论争缘起与“从新估价运动”45-51
        2.3.2 “托尔斯泰批判”的译介51-62
        2.3.3 列宁、普列汉诺夫论托尔斯泰与左翼批评模式的建立62-72
    2.4 三四十年代:艺术家的浮现72-78
第3章 现实主义理论话语中的俄国因素78-118
    3.1 “五四”思潮下的写实主义79-93
        3.1.1 分类概念下的“写实”79-81
        3.1.2 科学主义观念下的写实主义81-88
        3.1.3 人道主义观念与俄国文学译介88-93
    3.2 科玄论战与话语转向93-107
        3.2.1 写实与人道的危机93-96
        3.2.2 科玄论战与文学的阶级性96-99
        3.2.3 新写实主义的产生与传播99-104
        3.2.4 “现实”的不同理解与写实主义话语的转向104-107
    3.3 “社会主义现实主义”:口号与辨析107-118
        3.3.1 “社会主义现实主义”的译介与传播107-111
        3.3.2 什么是“真实”?111-115
        3.3.3 创作方法与现实主义的工具化115-118
第4章 文学的观念与规约:“党的文学”在中国118-170
    4.1 何谓“文学”?119-128
        4.1.1 “文学”概念的历史性119-124
        4.1.2 文学审美的历史性124-125
        4.1.3 现代中国的“文学”125-128
    4.2 《党的组织和党的文学》:从俄国到中国128-150
        4.2.1 俄国背景与文本思想129-133
        4.2.2 中国译介与内涵转移133-150
    4.3 观念-制度-知识:“党的文学”的影响150-162
        4.3.1 制度化文学的形成150-153
        4.3.2 制度化知识的实现:思想改造与党性批评153-158
        4.3.3 从制度知识到学术知识:文艺理论教科书158-162
    4.4 “去政治化”的政治和“党的文学”的改译162-170
第5章 “国民性”、“人民性”话语与翻译的政治170-178
    5.1 现代民族国家与“国民性”170-173
    5.2 “人民”和“人民性”173-176
    5.3 翻译的政治176-178
结语178-179
参考文献179-185
攻读博士学位期间发表的论文及其他成果185-186
论文摘要186-189
Abstract189-191


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