Oil shale, considered as a kind of important alternative energy, can be used to obtain shale oil and affiliated products by dry distillation, serving as fuel to generate electricity, heat and transportation. The waste residue from oil refining and power generation can also manufacture building materials, cement and chemical fertilizer, or extract chemical products and metals. Currently, with the increasing demand for energy resources, oil shale has aroused much attention due to its enormous potential value in comprehensive utilization. China is rich in oil shale resource, possessing 719.9 billion tons, which is equal to 47.6 billion tons of shale oil resources. Oil shale will become an important supplement resource for oil and gas, which investigation and exploration will inevitably bring about the climax of evaluation research.Supply and demand situation for oil and gas resources in China is becoming increasingly severe, and there is an urgent need to strengthen the strategic survey and evaluation for oil and gas resources. However, no unified evaluation method for oil shale resources has been proposed in China yet. From 1951 to 1999, prediction programs for oil shale resource were organized for four times, which brought out significant inconsistent figures and resource types, just the index of oil yield for instance, it showed that there exist great differences in previous results, which leaded to difficult comparison between domestic and international application.A new turn of national oil and gas resource evaluation was organized by Land and Natural Resources, the State Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Finance in 2003, oil shale resources evaluation was listed in it. Under such situation, this paper developed the research on the evaluation system of oil shale resource, According to "General geological exploring principles for solid mineral prospecting" (GB/T13908- 2002), the "solid mineral resources/reserves classification" (GB/T17766-1999) and other norms, also in the light of coal resource evaluation standards and international practices and prospecting and development status quo of oil shale resources in China, this paper firstly established the evaluation method system of oil shale resource. The system includes evaluation parameters, selecting principles, evaluation of the term definitions, the classification of resources / reserves types, evaluation methods and processes, research on technical coefficient, creating optimized methods of prospecting and exploring. The system is consistent with solid mineral characteristics and mineralization laws, also corresponds to oil and gas resource evaluation, provides standards for oil shale resource evaluation, and has been successfully applied to the state’s major special projects "national assessment of oil shale resources ".The geology, economy and feasibility factors were taken into full consideration in classification of resource/reserve types, and 3D classifying standards was applied, 5 series were generated: oil shale/ shale oil resources, technical resources of oil shale / shale oil and recoverable shale oil resources, which can be further classified into more than 30 types , so that the result was not only in line with the classification standards of solid mineral resources/reserves, but also consist with the conventional oil and gas resource evaluation. Estimation parameters of oil shale resource can be identified as mining seam thickness, effective area and ore body weight, their valuation standards and selection principle were unified, estimation methods and its process, which refer to single block serving as the basic unit were adopted, enabling evaluation results more scientific credible.Oil shale resources can be classified and evaluated according to different resources /reserves types, different geological reliabilities (predictable, inferred, controlled and proven), different economic significances (intrinsic economy, sub-marginalized economic, marginalized economic and economic), different layers (the Upper Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic), different oil yield (wt%) (3.5%<ω≤5%, 5%<ω≤10%,ω>10%), different depths (D≤500m, 500m<D≤1000m), different geographical environments (plains, plateaus, hills, mountains, deserts, desert, the Loess Plateau) and scope (including mine, basin, the regions, the National), to facilitate summary on distribution laws of oil shale resources.Recovery rates prescribed by the state in coal mining area (equivalent to mining technology coefficient) on thick coal seam underground mining, thick and thin coal seam were not less than 75%, 80% and 85% without considering inclination, geological type, geological reliability and other factors. By the research, this paper determined the main factors affecting oil shale mining, that is mining method, thickness, dip and geological type, established value standards of technology coefficients under different conditions (mining method, thickness, dip and geological type), different recoverable oil shale types for the first time, technology coefficients of open pit mining and underground mining can be established during 42.5% to 95.0% and 22.5% to 75.0% respectively, which provide more scientific technology coefficients in the calculation of oil shale/oil shale resources.Based on analyzing the impacts of main factors on oil shale resource prospection and exploration (geological conditions, exploration conditions), eight parameters such as oil yield were selected to establish the optimizing methods for oil shale resource exploration. Nine parameters such as oil yield were chosen to establish the optimizing methods for oil shale resource development.The northern of northeast China, including Jilin Province, Heilongjiang Province and part of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, possesses most abundant oil shale resources in our country, with higher levels in oil shale exploration and long history in development. Firstly based on the unified evaluation methods system, this paper evaluated 16 oil shale-bearing mines located in eight basins of northern of the northeast China, such as Songliao and Huadian Basin, the abundance of oil shale resources were 333.5 billion t, occupied 46.33% in the whole country, the new increased resources were 1146.7billion t (among them, the new increased identified resources 11.2billion t, the new increased potential resources 1135.5billion t), the technical-possible resources were 110.9 billion t, shale oil resources were 16.1 billion t, recoverable oil shale resources were 4 billion t. The data provides a scientific basis for generating development strategy of the oil and gas resources, propagating the medium and long-term energy development planning, and correctly guiding the development of oil shale resources survey.The oil shale resources in the research area were classified and evaluated according to different evaluation content firstly, the dominant composition was as followed in every classification: according to geological reliable extent, the predictable resources were 304.6 billion t, accounting for 91.33 percent; the intrinsic economic resources classified by economic significance were 332.4 billion t, accounting for 99.66 percent; classified by layer, resources mainly hosted in Mesozoic, which were 330.9 billion t, accounting for 99.22 percent; classified by oil yield, content mainly in the 3.5%<ω≤5%, the resource were 313.6 billion t , accounting for 94.03 percent; by the depth, resources were mainly between 0～500 m and 183.8 billion t, accounting for 55.11 percent; by geographical environment categories, resources mainly distributed in the plains and were 324.7 billion t, accounting for 97.36 percent. It provides quantitative data in summing up the distribution law of oil shale in northern part of the northeast China, optimizing oil shale prospecting and development goals.On the basis of field exploration on 12 mining areas, field measurement of 12 profiles, observation at 93 mines, and research and analysis on mineralization regularities of oil shale, 16 oil shale mines in the northern of northeast China were firstly prospected and comprehensively evaluated, Nong’an, Tang Lou and Changling in Songliao Basin were chosen as the optimizing exploration targets, Songnan and Songbei were chosen as the favorable exploration objectives; Huadian and Luozigou in Jilin province were chosen as the recent development goals, Naiman Banner of Inner Mongolia were chosen as a reserve development goal. The potential development of oil shale resources in northern of northeast China is tremendous, so we should further intensify oil shale exploration, enhance comprehensive development and utilization of oil shale level.