基于GIS与含油气系统的油气资源评价方法研究

A Study of Appraisal Method of Oil and Gas Resource Based on GIS and Petroleum System

作者: 专业:数字地质科学 导师:薛林福 年度:2008 学位:博士 

关键词
油气地质信息系统 地理信息系统 含油气系统 二次开发 油气资源评价 延吉盆地

Keywords
Petroleum Geological Information System, Geographic Information System, Petroleum System, Evaluation of oil and gas resources, Secondary development, Yanji Basin
        本文是在“大庆探区外围中、新生代断陷盆地群演化与油气远景”项目的第六课题“中、新生代断陷盆地群油气地质条件综合评价”基础上,进一步深入研究完成的。本文立足于含油气系统与地理信息系统(GIS)的结合为油气资源评价的研究开辟新的前景。以含油气系统为指导思想,以地理信息系统为工具,在二者结合的基础上,提出了一套用于油气资源评价的理论方法体系—油气地质信息系统(PGIS,Petroleum Geological Information System)。油气地质信息系统既是一种理论方法,又是一个技术系统,其是建立在含油气系统和GIS的基础上,通过对油气地质数据的采集、储存、管理、运算、显示、分析和决策,生成并输出各种油气地质信息,从而为油气资源评价提供新的评价因素,为勘探规划提供重要的决策依据的理论方法体系。在PGIS下本文紧紧围绕含油气系统理论的研究内容,从评价数据入手,提出了专家克里金法对数据进行空间预测,使得预测结果更加符合实际地质特征。利用GIS支持下的功能和方法对含油气系统所研究的静态地质要素、动态地质作用以及要素与作用之间的相互关系等开展了深入的研究,并在GIS环境下建立了各种地质要素的评价模型和实现方法。在地理信息系统软件平台ArcGIS Engine组件支持下,初步设计与开发了一个集数据管理和油气评价于一体的智能决策系统,并利用该系统提供的功能模块开展了延吉盆地油气探勘目标优选,在盆地中优选出7个有利区带,为勘探规划提供重要的决策依据。通过本次研究实现了含油气系统思想与GIS技术的集成与融合,为油气资源评价领域开辟了新的前景。
    The aim of Oil and Gas Resource Evaluation is to delineate the gathering places of oil and gas in the ground floor and to predicate the resource of the exploration area in terms of the long-range perspective through the analysis of the rule of the reservoir of oil and gas. As the thought and method of objective analysis and predication of the generation and distribution of oil and gas, the Petroleum System can effectively guide the oil and gas exploration. It also can reduce risk, lower costs and improve the efficiency of exploration. The research object of the Petroleum System is the petroleum basin, which is an object entity with special information, while the Petroleum System is used to analyze and determine all the factors of the basins. In the process of research, the system not only pays attention to the integrity and comprehension of the oil reservoir, but also all the factors from static to dynamic. It also conducts the evaluation of the area which bears oil and gas based on three-dimensional space. As an effective tool in the treatment of special data, with the development of its theories and technologies, GIS is applied to all walks. Along with the combination of GIS and petroleum geology, the advantages emerge when GIS is used to process and analyze the special data. Thus, GIS offers a convenient associated means and method to the data management, data analysis and visualization in oil and gas evaluation. Based on the combination of Petroleum System and GIS and the research object of Petroleum System, this dissertation applies the methods and functions which are supported by GIS in the analysis of static geological factors, dynamic geological factors and their interactions.Making a profound research of the method of thinking of Petroleum System and GIS’associated function to oil and gas resource evaluation, this dissertation puts forward a set of theories and methods used to oil and gas evaluation, named Petroleum Geological Information System, shorted as PGIS. PGIS is not only a system established based on the theories and methods Petroleum System and GIS, but also a technological system guided by the Petroleum System. based on GIS, PGIS establishes the relevant functions of petroleum evaluation, and supplies various special and dynamic petroleum geological information to the research of petroleum geology and petroleum evaluation as well as the computer determining service system.The degree of the accuracy of the petroleum evaluation data will influence the final result of the evaluation. Thus, the accuracy of the adopted data should be guaranteed. The Kriging interpolation of Geological statistics is a main method in the predication of geological data. Since it is a method used in partial evaluation, it has some limitations. In the process of interpolation,it cannot take the actual geological situations into consideration. However, the petroleum data often has the characteristics of tendency and region. In order to perform the actual geological features after the predication, the dissertation adopts the Kriging interpolation to predicate the data which has tendency. To the data with a regional feature, this dissertation proposes expert Kriging interpolation. This method, based on the study made by the geological experts, puts forward the boundary conditions. Applying the boundary conditions to restrict the distribution of regional contours, the results will be more in line with the actual geological features.When Petroleum System makes the petroleum evaluation, it evaluates the static geological factors, the dynamic factors and the interactions between them. PGIS applies a mathematical model to express the geological concept model, and integrate with the special analysis of GIS. Then it realizes the integrated system which can input, manage, deal with, analyze and visualize the actual geological factors. This dissertation adopts different analytical methods to deal with different contents. The synthetical evaluation of source rocks is based on the grid data, and it is realized by the modules with superposition functions. In the PGIS, the evaluation of the reservoir bed is to evaluate the physical parameters of reservoir bed synthetically. This thesis integrates neural network’s analysis method with the GIS system, and then expands the spatial analysis function of GIS, finally realizes the synthetical evaluation of the reservoir bed; the evaluation of cap rock is to evaluate the trap petroleum ability of cap rock. Combine the fuzzy clustering method with GIS, this thesis applies this model to classify the cap rock, and then definite the rank of cap rock’s seal capacity. One of the main research aspects of Petroleum System is the dynamic geological functions, while one of the main research contents of dynamic geological factors is the oil-gas migration. In PGIS, the simulated route of the petroleum migration is based on grid data, guided by the petroleum reservoir theory, according to the oil-gas migration mechanism. This dissertation designs a special algorithm to realize the simulation of the petroleum migration route. The designing thought of this algorithm is based on the fluid potential. It takes the unconformity, skeleton sand and fault as the migration channel and transfers them to penetration rate. Normalizing and superimposing them, the oil-gas migration control chart can be produced. Based on the boundary of source rock in this chart, we can seek and definite the oil-gas migration route; The thought of Petroleum System is to recognize the system in terms of the interaction within the system. It highlights the key question that the multi-factors organically match to the petroleum reservoir. According to the distribution of source bed, reservoir bed and cap bed and the type of the petroleum migration channels, this thesis classifies the multi-factors composition into four classes: the continual model, the unconfirmed model, the break model and the destructed model. According to the features of contacting model and channel, the author classifies each composition into certain sub-classes. Since the reservoir conditions of each model are different from others, the reservoir condition of each model should be evaluated to establish the grading standard.PetroGIAS, as the entity of the PGIS technological system, is an intelligent determining system which integrates data management and petroleum evaluation. The system adopts C# as the development environment, the ArcGIS Engine as the development component to realize the system function. It also adopts the way of managing the graph and attributes database to manage the system data. The functions of the system include data input and management, data process, visualization and output, which are the universal functions of the GIS soft platform. The evaluation of the source rock, the evaluation of the reservoir bed and cap bed, the simulation of the petroleum migration route are the extended functions this system, which manifests the high degree of integration of the petroleum exploration and GIS experts knowledge in this field.This dissertation takes petroleum evaluation of Yan Ji basin Dalazi period as the sample, and applies the methods to practice. It makes the research of petroleum evaluation based on GIS and Petroleum System. Through the analysis of sample, we can find out that the methods and theories proposed in this dissertation are valid and feasible. The findings of the research are illuminated in the following: (1) The advantage regions of the source rocks lie in the center of the Chaoyangchuan Depression, the surroundings areas of Yan Ji and Zhangyandong to Congming region of Dexin Depression; The advantage reservoir beds are mainly in the Chaoyangchuan Depression. However, the reservoir beds in Dexin Depression and Qingchaguan Depression are relatively disadvantage, and lie in theⅡandⅢdistricts of the reservoir bed evaluation; The advantage cap beds mainly distribute in the northeast part of Dexin Depression and Qingchaguan Depression, while the cap beds in the Chaoyangchuan Depression are relatively disadvantage; (2) According to the result of the petroleum migration route, we can find out that the petroleum of Qingchaguan Depression mainly migrates from the boundary of the source rock to north, east and south. The petroleum of Dexin Depression gathers from the east and west sides to the middle uplift. The petroleum of Chaoyangchuan Depression migrates from the boundary of source rocks toward the around areas. (3) Through the research on the evolution of formation, evolution of faults, sedimentary environment, and petroleum migration mode, we conclude that Yan Ji basin Dalazi period mainly has four kinds of multi-factors composition model: the continuous inter-bed model, the continuous side change model, syn-depositional fault model and the destructed fault model. (4) After the synthetical analysis of the above researches, the dissertation divides Yan Ji basin Dalazi period into seven advantage exploration region, that is, Zhangyandong-congming, around Yan Ji, Tong Fusi, Chaoyangchuan, Dongshengyong-dongming, Nanyangping, northwest part of Longjing city. It also evaluates and grades each region in accordance with the reservoir conditions of that area, and provides an important decision making basis for the evaluation of petroleum basin.
        

基于GIS与含油气系统的油气资源评价方法研究

内容提要5-10
第一章 引言10-23
    1.1 选题意义和依据10-11
    1.2 国内外研究进展11-17
        1.2.1 含油气系统概念的发展11-13
        1.2.2 GIS 在油气勘探开发领域中的应用13-15
        1.2.3 油气资源评价方法研究15-17
    1.3 研究内容17-18
    1.4 研究思路18-20
    1.5 完成的主要工作量20-21
    1.6 主要创新点21
    1.7 小结21-23
第二章 油气地质信息系统理论与方法23-47
    2.1 含油气系统23-27
        2.1.1 含油气系统概念及研究内容24-25
        2.1.2 含油气系统的评价模型25-26
        2.1.3 含油气系统的系统性思维26-27
        2.1.4 含油气系统的作用27
    2.2 地理信息系统27-31
        2.2.1 地理信息系统功能28-30
        2.2.2 地理信息系统的开发模式30-31
    2.3 油气地质信息系统31-45
        2.3.1 油气地质信息系统的提出31-32
        2.3.2 PGIS 基本原理32-43
            2.3.2.1 PGIS 的基本概念32-33
            2.3.2.2 PGIS 的数据建模33-38
            2.3.2.3 PGIS 下的油气资源评价方法38-43
        2.3.3 PGIS 的可行性分析43-44
        2.3.4 PGIS 的作用44-45
    2.4 小结45-47
第三章 基于GIS 的含油气系统的地质要素研究47-94
    3.1 地质统计学的空间数据预测47-56
        3.1.1 变异函数结构分析48-50
        3.1.2 具有趋势的克里金法50-53
            3.1.2.1 具有趋势的克里金方程50-52
            3.1.2.2 趋势克里金法的计算步骤及结果对比52-53
        3.1.3 专家克里金插值法53-56
            3.1.3.1 专家克里金插值法的提出53-54
            3.1.3.2 专家克里金插值法的模型54-56
    3.2 基于GIS 的静态地质要素评价模型的建立56-79
        3.2.1 烃源岩评价模型56-64
            3.2.1.1 描述烃源岩特征的主要参数57-59
            3.2.1.2 烃源岩评价参数体系与取值标准59-60
            3.2.1.3 基于GIS 的烃源岩评价模型的建立60-64
        3.2.2 储集层综合评价64-73
            3.2.2.1 储集层评价参数的选取65-67
            3.2.2.2 基于神经网络的储集层综合评价67-71
            3.2.2.3 GIS 平台下神经网络的储集层综合评价71-73
        3.2.3 盖层地质要素评价73-79
            3.2.3.1 盖层评价参数的选取与确定73-75
            3.2.3.2 基于模糊聚类法的盖层综合评价75-77
            3.2.3.3 GIS 平台下模糊聚类法的盖层综合评价77-79
    3.3 基于GIS 的动态地质作用研究79-92
        3.3.1 油气运聚机理80-82
        3.3.2 流体势研究82-85
            3.3.2.1 流体势数学模型82-84
            3.3.2.2 流体势参数模型84-85
        3.3.3 油气运聚通道和路径85-88
            3.3.3.1 油气运移通道86-87
            3.3.3.2 油气运移路径87-88
        3.3.4 基于GIS 的油气运移路径模拟88-92
            3.3.4.1 基于GIS 的油气运移路径算法分析88-90
            3.3.4.2 基于GIS 的油气运移路径模拟流程90-92
        3.3.5 油气运移距离的计算92
    3.4 小结92-94
第四章 PGIS 下多因素油气资源评价模型分析94-115
    4.1 含油气系统多因素综合评价94-95
    4.2 多因素叠加模型研究95-112
        4.2.1 多因素叠加组合模式95-110
        4.2.2 多因素叠加组合模式的评价110-112
    4.3 基于GIS 的油气资源评价多因素综合研究112-114
    4.4 小结114-115
第五章 油气资源评价系统的设计与开发115-140
    5.1 系统总体设计方案115-122
        5.1.1 组件式地理信息系统115-117
        5.1.2 ArcGIS Engine117-120
        5.1.3 系统目标120
        5.1.4 系统体系结构120-121
        5.1.5 系统开发环境121
        5.1.6 系统用户界面121-122
    5.2 系统功能设计122-125
    5.3 数据库建立125-131
        5.3.1 数据库设计的原则125
        5.3.2 数据的标准化125-126
        5.3.3 数据库设计126-127
        5.3.4 空间数据库的建立127-128
        5.3.5 属性数据库的建立128-131
    5.4 系统核心模块开发131-139
        5.4.1 空间数据预测子模块132-133
        5.4.2 基于GIS 的烃源岩评价子模块133-135
        5.4.3 基于神经网络的储层评价子模块135-136
        5.4.4 基于模糊聚类法的盖层评价子模块136-137
        5.4.5 油气运移路径模拟子模块137-139
    5.5 小结139-140
第六章 延吉盆地油气资源评价研究140-175
    6.1 区域地质概况140-146
        6.1.1 研究区概况140
        6.1.2 区域主要地层特征140-143
        6.1.3 延吉盆地构造特征143-145
        6.1.4 研究目标及流程145-146
    6.2 静态地质要素分析146-163
        6.2.1 烃源岩综合评价146-155
        6.2.2 储集层综合评价155-159
        6.2.3 盖层综合评价159-163
    6.3 动态地质作用分析163-167
    6.4 多因素综合评价167-173
        6.4.1 多因素叠加组合模式167-168
        6.4.2 有利区带划分与评价168-173
    6.5 小结173-175
结论175-181
参考文献181-191
博士学习期间主要成果191-193
摘要193-197
Abstract197-201
致谢202


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