环境保护与产业国际竞争力关联问题研究

Research on the Issues Relating to Environmental Protection and International Competitive Power of Industries

作者: 专业:管理科学与工程 导师:李必强 年度:2008 学位:博士 

关键词
环境保护 产业国际竞争力 环境标准 贸易磨擦 评价方法

Keywords
Environmental Protection, International Competitive Power of Industry, Environmental Quality Assessment Index, Trade Friction, Evaluation Method
        国际贸易和国际投资自由化的发展,使商品和资本的国际流动更加快捷,要素价格日趋均等化,为此各国都在努力提高和维护本国产品出口的国际竞争力。由于各国的生产水平、自然条件和环境自净能力不同,环境保护问题在不同的国家表现的重要程度各异,使得发达国家与发展中国家的环境保护标准难以协调。而只要一国准备实施新的环保标准和环保措施,产品国际市场竞争力问题就立即会引起国际社会的广泛关注。对环境保护与产业国际竞争力关系的判断已经成为一个国家能否自觉主动的选择可持续发展模式的前提。虽然有关的研究无法给出严格的环境保护标准所导致的竞争力效应的清晰证据,但政策制定者、一部分经济学家则完全确信这种影响。事实上,国际社会的许多冲突和谈判正是基于这样一个直觉判断,即环境保护手段的实施直接影响了产业的国际竞争力。中国已加入WTO,随着贸易依存度的不断提高,与环境保护有关的贸易磨擦正不断增多,国际贸易中日益增高的环境保护措施将会给中国的出口贸易、产业的国际竞争力带来怎样的影响?对这一涉及国际经济理论前沿问题的解答,不仅是理论上的解析,更重要是对我国经济的可持续发展具有重要的政策意义。本研究的论述始终围绕着环境保护和产业国际竞争力问题展开,在前人研究成果之上,借助于经济学理论和现代经济学分析方法探讨环境标准与出口产业竞争力的相互关系,并以此为依据提出了我国制定可持续发展和科学、合理的环境保护机制,对以下几个问题进行研究。环境保护与产业国际竞争力关联问题理论研究。从经济学的角度对环境保护与产业国际竞争力问题进行了深入的理论研究,剖析了环境问题产生的经济根源,对引入环境因素的国际经济理论进行了一定的探讨,对庇古税在环境保护中的作用以及科斯定理与产权关系做出了概括性的理论分析。环境保护与产业国际竞争力关联问题的影响分析。从微观的企业、中观的产业和宏观的国家三个层面入手,分别讨论了环境保护对三个层面的不同影响。着重研究了环境成本的产业机制和大小,讨论了环境保护对GDP、产业结构、国际贸易等方面的影响。环境保护与产业国际竞争力关联问题的测度和评价方法,主要讨论了ERS的关联指标选取和量化方法,ERS综合评价体系的构建评价、产业国际竞争力的评价方法。针对现有测度评价方法研究的不足,参照综合评价的一般原理,利用环保投资水平、单位产出污染排放等指标来测量环境保护强度。中美环境保护与产业竞争力比较分析。将中美关联产业放在同一研究视角中,通过国际比较实证检验产业环境保护强度与其国际竞争力的变化关系。通过中美产出变化比较、商品整体竞争力比较、市场占有率变化比较、贸易专业化指数变化比较检验假设。我国环境保护对产业国际竞争力影响的实证分析。以我国为研究对象,通过环境污染现状和工业污染排放的综述,总结出我国工业污染的特征,通过对不同行业的环境保护强度与产业竞争力的关联分析,得出环境保护强度的大小与我国产业国际竞争力的强弱之间并非一种简单的线形关系,发现加强环境保护的强度并不一定就意味着削弱产业的国际竞争力。本研究在最后部分提出了提高我国生态环境保护措施的产业国际竞争力的对策建议,构思了我国环境保护与产业国际竞争力基本经济政策框架。
    With the development of international trade and liberalization of international investment, the flows of goods and international capitals are accelerating. So the factors prices are tending to equalization, and different countries are making efforts to safeguard and enhance the international competitive power of their exports. Due to the variousness of production levels, natural conditions and environmental self-purification abilities among the different countries, the environmental protection issue in different countries is of varying degrees of importance, which makes it difficult to reconcile environmental protection standards between the developed and developing countries. As long as a country is preparing for the implementation of new environmental standards and protection measures, competitive power issues will attract widespread concerns in the international community. The judgment of relationship between environmental protection and industrial international competitive power has become a premise, on which whether one country can choose sustainable development model initially based.Although it is difficult to give strict and clear evidence by the related researchers that environmental protection standards influence industry competitive power, but the policy-makers, economists are fully convinced of this impact. In fact, many conflicts and negotiations in the international community’s are based on the intuitive judgment that the implementation of environmental protection measures directly affects the industry’s international competitiveness.With the continuous increasing of trade dependency, environment-related trade frictions are also continuously increasing in China after China joined the WTO. What influences on china’s export and industrious international competitive power will be brought by the increasing environmental protection measures? It is a forefront issue of international economic theory, and the answer to this issue not only is a theoretical analysis, but also has an important policy signification to the sustainable development of China’s economy.This dissertation aims at discovering the relationship between the environmental protection and international competitive power of industries, around which the mutual relations between environmental protection standards and competitive power of the export industries are analyzed on the results of previous researches by adopting modern economic theory and economic analysis method. On the basis of that, the sustainable, scientific and rational environmental protection mechanism of China are presented. The dissertation is comprised of following parts:1. The relationship between environmental protection and international competitive power of industries is lucubrated in economics’ opinion. The economic rootstock of the environmental problems is anatomized firstly, and the introduction of environmental factors to international economic theory is discussed then, the role of Pigou tax in the environmental protection and relations between Coase Theorem and property rights are broadly theoretically analyzed.2. The influences of environmental protection on international competitive power of industries are analyzed in the different angle of view, including the micro enterprises’ level, the industries’ level, and the macro-level countries. The research emphases focus on the environmental cost of the industry mechanism, and the impact of environmental protection on the GDP, industrial structure, and international trade are discussed.3. The measurement and evaluation methods of the influences of environmental protection on international competitive powers of industries are studied by adopting ERS method. And the selection of relevant indicators and their quantitative approach, the construction and evaluation of the ERS comprehensive assessment system, the evaluation methods of international competitive power, are discussed. To overcoming the limitation of the existing measurement evaluation, referring to the general principles of comprehensive evaluation, environmental investment levels, emissions per unit of output, and other indicators are used to measure the intensity of environmental protection.4. Comparative analysis of Sino-US environmental protection and industrial competitive power is proposed. By putting Sino-US related industries on the same perspective, the relation of the international competitive power changed with the industrious environmental protection intensity is validated through international empirical comparison, and the assumptions are tested with the comparison of the changes of output, the overall competitive power of the goods, the changes in market share, and the changes in trade specialization index, between China and the United States.5. Empirical analysis of the influences of China’s environmental protection on the industrious international competitive power is proposed. By taking China as the research object, the characteristics of China’s industrial pollution are summarized through sum up on environmental pollution status and emissions of industrial pollution. After related analysis of the relationships between environmental protection strength and competitive power of different industries, the conclusion that the international competitive power of China’s industries maybe not decrease simply with the enhancement of the environmental protection intensity, is given.6. The Countermeasures to improve China’s protection of the ecological environment of the international competitive power of industry are proposed, and the basic economic policy framework of China’s environmental protection industry and the international competitiveness is presented.
        

环境保护与产业国际竞争力关联问题研究

摘要5-7
Abstract7-8
第1章 绪论12-27
    1.1 研究背景、目的与意义12-14
        1.1.1 研究背景12-13
        1.1.2 研究的目的与意义13-14
    1.2 国内外研究现状14-23
        1.2.1 国外研究14-22
        1.2.2 国内研究22-23
    1.3 研究内容和方法23-27
        1.3.1 研究内容23-24
        1.3.2 研究方法24-27
第2章 环境保护与产业国际竞争力的理论27-56
    2.1 环境保护的理论27-41
        2.1.1 经济理论中引入环境要素27-32
        2.1.2 环境要素对产业竞争力的效应32-36
        2.1.3 环境保护问题的经济学分析36-41
    2.2 可持续发展经济理论41-46
        2.2.1 可持续发展含义与理论原则41-44
        2.2.2 可持续发展经济理论的核心理念44-46
    2.3 产业国际竞争力的理论46-55
        2.3.1 外生比较优势理论与产业国际竞争力46-48
        2.3.2 内生比较优势理论与产业国际竞争力48-51
        2.3.3 竞争优势理论与产业国际竞争力51-55
    本章小结55-56
第3章 环境保护对产业国际竞争力的影响分析56-79
    3.1 环境保护对产业竞争力的微观影响分析56-69
        3.1.1 环境保护成本及其产生机制56-62
        3.1.2 环境保护成本的分担62-63
        3.1.3 环境保护成本的消解63-69
    3.2 环境保护对产业竞争力的宏观影响分析69-74
        3.2.1 对物价和产品价格的影响69-70
        3.2.2 对产出的影响70-73
        3.2.3 对贸易的影响73-74
    3.3 环境保护对产业竞争力的综合分析74-78
        3.3.1 国内产业间的比较77
        3.3.2 国家间同一产业的比较77-78
    本章小结78-79
第4章 环境保护与产业国际竞争力的测度和评价79-107
    4.1 环境保护强度的测量79-88
        4.1.1 环境保护强度测量的研究现状79-84
        4.1.2 影响ERS的因素分析84-85
        4.1.3 我国区域ERS综合评价的基本思路与方法85-88
    4.2 产业环境保护强度的测量88-96
        4.2.1 指标的标准化方法89-90
        4.2.2 产业ERS的评价指标90-93
        4.2.3 产业ERS的综合评价93-96
    4.3 污染密集产业的分类标准及方法96-98
    4.4 产业国际竞争力评价98-99
        4.4.1 评价方法的选择98-99
        4.4.2 指标的处理99
    4.5 产业国际竞争力评价指标与模型99-106
        4.5.1 市场份额测定产业国际竞争力100-101
        4.5.2 净出口衡量产业国际竞争力101-102
        4.5.3 贸易结构测度产业国际竞争力102-106
    本章小结106-107
第5章 中美环境保护与产业竞争力的比较分析107-122
    5.1 美国环境保护概述107-109
        5.1.1 美国环境政策的沿革107-108
        5.1.2 美国环境保护政策的特点及发展趋势108-109
    5.2 中美污染产业国际竞争力的比较109-121
        5.2.1 中美产业产出水平变化的比较109-114
        5.2.2 中美产业(商品)国际竞争力的比较114-121
    本章小结121-122
第6章 我国环境保护与产业国际竞争力的实证研究122-136
    6.1 我国工业环境污染对产业竞争力的影响特征122-125
        6.1.1 经济结构122-123
        6.1.2 工业行业结构123-124
        6.1.3 企业规模结构124
        6.1.4 经济所有制类型结构124-125
        6.1.5 污染行业的结构比例125
    6.2 我国产业国际竞争力分析125-131
        6.2.1 中国工业产品整体出口竞争力125-126
        6.2.2 产品国际市场占有率的变化126-127
        6.2.3 贸易专业化指数的变化127-128
        6.2.4 显示性比较优势指数(RCA)的变化128-131
    6.3 环境保护强度与产业国际竞争力的关联分析131-134
        6.3.1 ERS与市场占有率的关联分析131-132
        6.3.2 ERS与TSC之间的关联分析132-133
        6.3.3 ERS与RCA之间的关联分析133-134
    本章小结134-136
第7章 提高基于环境保护的我国产业竞争力若干思考136-149
    7.1 健全提升竞争力的环保制度体系136-142
        7.1.1 环境保护经济制度的建设136-138
        7.1.2 完善环境技术标准制度138-139
        7.1.3 形成环境保护标志制度139-140
        7.1.4 构筑环境保护法规体系140-141
        7.1.5 建立环境知识产权保护与应用制度141-142
    7.2 完善提高产业国际竞争力政策框架142-148
        7.2.1 提升国际竞争力的政策措施142-143
        7.2.2 提高国际竞争力的经济政策手段143-146
        7.2.3 提高基于环境保护国际竞争力的动力源146-148
    本章小结148-149
第8章 全文的总结与研究展望149-152
    8.1 全文总结149-150
    8.2 论文创新点150
    8.3 研究展望150-152
参考文献152-158
致谢158-159
攻读博士期间参与的科研项目和发表的学术论文159


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